2Performance Assessment Performance assessment is a dynamic process calling for students to be active participants, who are learning even while they are being assessed. No longer is assessment perceived as a single event. "The purpose of assessment is to find out what each student is able to do, with knowledge, in context."
3The ChallengeOur challenge is, therefore, to create engaging and meaningful assessment tasks.
4DefinitionPerformance assessment is a continuum of assessment formats which allows teachers to observe student behavior ranging from simple responses to demonstrations to work collected over time. (Rudner & Boston) Performance assessments have two parts: a clearly defined task and a list of explicit criteria for assessing student performance or product. Performance assessment is built upon these four assumptions:
51. ConstructivismKnowledge is Constructed Research tells us that students show greater interest and perform at higher levels of learning when they are required to organize facts around major concepts and then actively construct their own understanding of those concepts. They also retain knowledge better. Active participation is the key to all performance assessments. (Sweet )
62. Worthwhile TasksThe Task is Worthwhile. The ideal performance task is "inherently instructional, actively engaging students in worthwhile learning activities." (Sweet) Performance tasks are therefore open-ended and assess an array of knowledge and skills related to the curriculum. Thus the curriculum powers the test, not the other way around. (Sweet; Kulieke, et al)
73. Improve TeachingBetter Assessments Improve Teaching Assessment's overall purpose is "to provide valid information for decision making." (Kulieke, et al, ) When teachers prepare students for a performance task, they must carefully describe the task and the standards that will be used to evaluate performance. When teachers are informed of the learning progress and difficulties of their students they can then make better decisions about content and instruction. (Fuchs):
84. Improving LearningMeeting Criteria Improves Learning Students should be active participants in their own learning. They perform better when they know what goals they are working towards, when they have the opportunity to examine models of excellence, and when they understand how their own performance compares to a set of established criteria. (McTighe)
9Goals of PAWiggins (1990) writes that "the best tests always teach students and teachers alike the kind of work that most matters; they are enabling and forward-looking, not just reflective of prior teaching." The main goals of performance assessment are to gather data on students that focus on growth over time rather than comparing them with each other; to focus on what they know rather than on what they don't; and to meet the needs of diverse learning styles, cultural backgrounds, and proficiency levels. (Tannenbaum).
10The Tools of Assessment A. Purpose and Impact— How will the assessment be used and how will it impact instruction and the selection of curriculum? B. Validity and Fairness— Does it measure what it intends to measure? Does it allow students to demonstrate both what they know and are able to do? C. Reliability— Is the data that is collected reliable across applications within the classroom, school, and district? D. Significance— Does it address content and skills that are valued by and reflect current thinking in the field? E. Efficiency— Is the method of assessment consistent with the time available in the classroom setting?
11Definition of Assessment Assessment can be defined as a sample taken from a larger domain of content and process skills that allows one to infer student understanding of a part of the larger domain being explored. The sample may include behaviors, products, knowledge, and performances.
12Authentic AssessmentAssessment is a continuous, ongoing process that involves examining and observing learners’ behaviors, listening to their ideas, and developing questions to promote conceptual understanding. The term authentic assessment is often referred to in any discussion of assessment and can be thought of as an examination of student performance and understanding on significant tasks that have relevancy to the student's life inside and outside of the classroom.
13General Targets Declarative Knowledge— the "what" knowledge Conditional Knowledge— the "why" knowledgeProcedural Knowledge— the "how" knowledgeApplication Knowledge— the use of knowledge in both similar settings and in different contexts
14General TargetsProblem Solving— a process of using knowledge or skills to resolve an issue or problemCritical Thinking— evaluation of concepts associated with inquiryDocumentation— a process of communicating understandingUnderstanding— synthesis by the learner of concepts, processes, and skills
15Three Types of Assessment Assessment can be divided into three stages: baseline assessment, formative assessment, and summative assessment. Baseline assessment establishes the "starting point" of the student's understanding. Formative assessment provides information to help guide the instruction throughout the unit, and summative assessment informs both the student and the teacher about the level of conceptual understanding and performance capabilities that the student has achieved.
16General Assessment Targets Declarative Knowledge— the "what" knowledgeConditional Knowledge— the "why" knowledgeProcedural Knowledge— the "how" knowledgeApplication Knowledge— the use of knowledge in both similar settings and in different contextsProblem Solving— a process of using knowledge or skills to resolve an issue or problemCritical Thinking— evaluation of concepts associated with inquiryDocumentation— a process of communicating understandingUnderstanding— synthesis by the learner of concepts, processes, and skills
17Stages of AssessmentAssessment can be divided into three stages: baseline assessment, formative assessment, and summative assessment. Baseline assessment establishes the "starting point" of the student's understanding. Formative assessment provides information to help guide the instruction throughout the unit, and summative assessment informs both the student and the teacher about the level of conceptual understanding and performance capabilities that the student has achieved.
18Baseline AssessmentsBaselineAssessmentsOral and written responses based on individual experience Assess prior knowledge
19Paper & Pencil Tests - Formative Paper and Pencil TestsMultiple choice, short answer, essay,constructed response, written reportsAssess students acquisition ofKnowledge and conceptsFormative
20Embedded Assessments - Formative Assess an aspect of studentlearning in the context of thelearning experienceFormative
21Oral Reports - Formative Require communication by thestudent that demonstratesscientific understandingFormative
22Interviews - Formative Assess individual andgroup performance before,during, and after a scienceexperienceFormative
23Performance Tasks - Either Require students tocreate or take an actionrelated to a problem,issue, or scientificconceptFormativeAndSummative
24Checklists - Either Checklists Monitor and record anecdotal informationFormative andSummative
25Investigative Projects - Summative Require students toexplore a problem orconcern stated either bythe teacher or the studentsSummative
26Extended/Unit Projects - Summative Extended orUnitProjectsRequire the application ofknowledge and skills in anopen-ended settingSummative
27Portfolios - Both Portfolios Assist students in the process of developing andreflecting on a purposefulcollection of studentgenerated dataFormative andSummative