To understand Phonemic Awareness, you need to understand the broader category: Phonological Awareness
Basic Levels of Phonological Awareness Rhyming Syllables Manipulating and Identifying Onset and Rime Counting Words in a Sentence
And, last but not least, Phonemic Awareness. It also falls under the same umbrella of auditory skills.
Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness skills also fall within a hierarchy from “basic” to “complex” Phonemic segmentation is considered a benchmark for demonstrating a complex level of phonemic awareness. Example: How many sounds/ phonemes in ship? /sh/ /i/ /p/=3
Findings from National Reading Panel All young children benefit from phonemic awareness training The most effective approach: direct and systematic Using letters with phonemic awareness training is effective Less is more! Small group instruction is effective
Why is it so important? Phonemic awareness turns out to be the single best predictor of risk for early reading failure (p. 90) Dyslexia is associated with the “phonological component of language” so early detection of difficulties with phonemic awareness is critical. Research suggests that intervention programs aimed at phonemic awareness are effective.
Paired association between letters and the letter sounds they represent Teaches sound-symbol correspondences of the approximately 44 sounds in the English spoken language Goal: Help children use the sound-symbol relationship to read and write words. Provide children with carefully sequenced, systematic direct instruction Definition
Phonics Instruction Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is more effective than non- systematic or no phonics instruction. Systematic and explicit phonics instruction significantly improves kindergarten and first-grade children’s word recognition and spelling. Systematic and explicit phonics instruction significantly improves children’s reading comprehension. Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is effective for children from various social and economic levels. Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is particularly beneficial for children who are having difficulty learning to read and who are at risk for developing future reading problems. Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is most effective when introduced early (K or 1). National Reading Panel
Approaches to Phonics Instruction Synthetic (explicit) phonics--Children learn how to convert letters or letter combinations into sounds, and then how to blend the sounds together to form recognizable words. Children have learned the letters m, a, n and the corresponding sounds /m/ /a/ /n/. They blend them to make the word man. Analytic (implicit) phonics--Children learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce sounds in isolation. Children see and say the word man. The teacher tells the students that the letter m makes the beginning sound in man. Analogy-based phonics--Children learn to use parts of word families they know to identify words they don’t know that have similar parts. Children use their knowledge of key words such as must and ate to read the word frustrate. Phonics through Spelling--Children learn to segment words into phonemes and to select letters for those phonemes. Children learn to compare unknown words to words they already know. Children focus on phonics during writing experiences.
Phonics Activities should include: Letter recognition Students practice matching, identifying, and ordering letters in the alphabet ~ Letter-sound correspondence Students practice identifying and matching sounds to letters (initial, final, and medial) Onset and Rime Students practice identifying initial consonant and any consonants that follow it; then practice blending, sorting, and segmenting the onset and rime Word study Students practice sorting, blending, segmenting, and manipulating the sounds of letters in words and practice identifying high- frequency words Syllable Patterns Students practice blending and segmenting syllables in words Morpheme Structures Students practice blending compound words, roots, and affixes
What is reading fluency? –“Ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression.” Report of the National Reading Panel (p. 3-5) Why is fluency important? –“Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.” National Institute for Literacy (NIFL), 2001, p. 22 –Fluent readers are able to focus their attention on understanding text. Fluency
What are the essential components? –Accuracy and Automaticity of Decoding Processes Readers decode words accurately Readers decode words effortlessly –Reading Speed or Rate Readers read with an age or grade level appropriate rate Reading speed is adjusted for purpose and text difficulty –Expression and Prosody Readers read with smoothness, phrasing, and inflection. –Comprehension Readers comprehend important ideas in connected text.
Fluency How can we monitor students’ progress? –Assess fluency regularly and systematically Listen to students read aloud Take timed readings and compare performance with norms –Adjust instruction, if necessary, based on: Progress monitoring assessments Observational data Why is monitoring progress important? –Motivating to students –Useful in setting instructional goals
Vocabulary is.. –The words we must know to communicate effectively. Oral vocabulary »Words we use in speaking or recognize in listening. Reading vocabulary »Words we recognize in reading or use in writing. Importance of Vocabulary Learning to read –Beginning readers have a much more difficult time reading words that are not part of their oral vocabulary. Reading comprehension –Readers can not understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean.
Vocabulary Most vocabulary is learned indirectly through everyday experiences with oral language as children: Engage in daily oral language Listen to adults read to them Read extensively on their own Some vocabulary requires direct instruction in the form of: Specific word instruction- explicit teaching of individual word meaning. Word learning instruction- teaching of strategies for deriving word meaning. »How to use dictionaries and other reference aids. »Knowledge of common affixes, base and root words. »Using context clues.
Vocabulary The vocabulary words selected for instruction should be: –Important Words that are important for understanding a concept or the text. –Useful Words that are likely to be seen and used again. –Difficult Words that are particularly difficult.
Comprehension is the reason for reading Good readers are purposeful and actively engaged in the text Text comprehension can be improved by using the following six comprehension strategies: 1.Monitoring Comprehension: Teaches students to be aware of what they do understand, identify what they do not understand and use strategies to resolve problems with text comprehension
Comprehension 2. Using graphic and semantic organizers: Helps students focus on text structure as they read Provides students with tools they can use to visually examine relationships in a text Helps students write summaries of text 3. Answering questions Gives students a purpose for reading Focuses students’ attention on the text Encourages active thinking as they read Encourages monitoring of comprehension Helps students connect text to previously learned material
Comprehension 4. Generating questions: Improves students’ active processing of text Promotes students to self-monitor for understanding 5. Summarizing: Helps students identify main idea Assists students in connecting main idea Allows students to eliminate unnecessary information Helps students remember what they read
Comprehension 6. Recognizing story structure Promotes greater appreciation, understanding and memory for stories Allows students to see how contents of a story are organized into a plot Effective comprehension strategy instruction: Is explicit and direct Can be accomplished through cooperative learning Helps readers use comprehension strategies flexibly and in combination
Writing Specific Reading Approaches Rachel Kuklinski
Our Objectives Define purposes of writing Think about what good writing instruction is Examine some of the difficulties students who struggle encompass Explore and share strategies that facilitate skill in writing for students who struggle
Agenda Definitions, questions about writing Reading Rocket webcast or power point Discussion Power point presentation on Technology and Writing Instruction
Overarching Questions What are some of the purposes of writing and why do we teach it in school? In what ways does writing relate to reading? How have you integrated writing across the curriculum? What are some other ways that you might incorporate writing into other content areas? What are some of the more difficult areas in teaching the writing process that you have experienced with your students?
Begin at the Beginning Think about your own experiences with writing in school. Write about something from them that stands out in your mind, and how it has impacted you as a teacher. Define the purposes of writing and goals that you have when working with your students on writing.
Looking at Exemplars DESE website
Debates Should writing be taught before proficiency in decoding, spelling and handwriting? Do students need full mastery of alphabetic principle before beginning writing? Do students need full mastery of phoneme awareness before beginning writing?
Often under-taught, yet.. Teaches organization/self expression Teaches forms of text: narrative, expository, etc Connects reading comprehension with written form Connects vocabulary with comprehension (transitional words, conjunctions, parts of speech)
Direct instruction is needed within the workshop Teaches development of sentence to paragraph to essay Goal of sentence writing is to write compound and complex sentences: enhances comprehension Goal of sentence writing is to improve revision and editing skills: enhances critical thinking Goal of sentence is to apply knowledge of grammar and structure, enhances clarity of self expression and understanding of author’s craft
Strategies for Reluctant Writers Process approach –Preplanning and organizing –Writing the draft –Proofing/revision –Editing –Final versions
Strategies Encourage students to visualize situation, action, character Role-play situations prior to organizing the information Play with words Create silly situations and have students verbally elaborate upon what might happen next
Paragraphs and Compositions Persuasive writing Descriptive writing Compare and contrast composition
Integral for success: time, model, direct Plan Outline Revise and edit Write final copy
Outlines Quick outline – develops single paragraph and intended to help students discern basic structure of paragraph: topic sentence, supporting details, conclusion Transitional Outline – beginning of composition writing: two or three paragraphs Multiple Paragraph Outline- compositions of 3 or more paragraphs
Outline Select topic that will be the basis for title when writing the draft Discuss purpose and audience Write main idea as a phrase or category for each paragraph Write supporting details
Teaching Spelling Taken from: Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills by Judith R. Birsh
Objectives After this presentation participants will Understand the importance of spelling instruction and how spelling develops Learn reliable spelling patterns and rules of English Learn activities, procedures, and lesson planning for effective spelling instruction
Spelling Development –Requires phonological knowledge the knowledge of and sensitivity to the phonological structure of words in a language. –Orthographic knowledge Orthographic knowledge refers to the knowledge of how the sounds (phonemes) of a language are mapped to the symbols (letters) of that language for use in reading and writing. –Begins with visual strategies
Prephonetic Stage Also called the precommunicative Stage Stage in spelling development in which not all of the sounds of the word are represented by letters (e.g., JS for dress). –Differentiate writing from drawing –Imitate the print they have seen –Use ltter-like or number-like forms –Shows lack of understanding of the concept of a word
Semiphonetic Stage Stage in spelling development in which a child usually strings consonants together to represent speech sounds in words and syllables (e.g., NTR for enter). –Child becomes more aware that individual letters represent individual sounds –Uses incomplete but reasonable phonetic representations of words
Phonetic Stage Stage in spelling development in which every sound is represented The complete knowledge of conventional orthography is not. Aware of not only sounds but also the mouth position used to make sounds.
Important Terms to Know Phonetics –The system of speech sounds in any specific language. Phonemes –place of articulation –voiced and unvoiced –open, blocked, partially blocked –continuous and stop consonant sounds Allophones – Slight variations in production of vowels or consonants that are predictable variants of a phoneme (e.g., /p/ in pot and spot, /a/ in fast and tank).
Knowledge Necessary for Spelling Phonology – The science of speech sounds, including the study of the development of speech sounds in one language or the comparison of speech sound development across different languages. Phonics – Paired association between letters and letter sounds; an approach to teaching of reading and spelling that emphasizes sound-symbol relationships, especially in early instruction. Morphology –1) The internal structure of the meaningful units within words and the relationships among words in a language. –2) The study of word formation patterns. Word origins Invented spelling
Regular words Transparent spellings Multiple spellings –situation –initial, medial, final Knowledge Necessary for Spelling
Spelling Rules The Floss Rule –Double the consonants f, l and s at the end of a one syllable word following a short vowel. Common exceptions to this rule are gas, yes, and bus. The Rabbit Rule – Double the consonants b, d, g, m, n and p after a short vowel in a two syllable word. The Doubling Rule –If a one-syllable word has one short vowel and one consonant at the end, double the final consonant before adding an ending that begins with a vowel; for example, stop/stopping and plan/planned, but not mean/meaner and milk/milked. The Dropping Rule –If a word ends in a silent "e," drop the "e" before adding an ending that starts with a vowel; for example, use/using, dance/dancer, and fame/famous, but not place/placement and care/careful. The Changing Rule –If a word ends in a consonant plus "y," change the "y" to "i" before adding an ending except -ing; for example, ready/readiness, lucky/luckily, and duty/dutiful, but not study/studying.
Formal Spelling Instruction Should Include the Following Phonological awareness training Opportunities for kindergarteners and beginning first graders to experiment with writing using invented spelling Multisensory guided discovery teaching introductions to the sound-symbol correspondences, patterns, rules, and morphemes of English, beginning in the middle of first grade and using a systematic, sequential, cumulative order of presentation Opportunities to analyze and sort words Practice using multisensory structured procedures A multisensory procedure for learning irregular words Opportunities to use the words in writing through dictation and personal writing
Study Questions How are reading and spelling alike, and how do they differ? How is spelling important to reading and writing development? Define orthography, phonetics, phonology, phonics, and morphology. How does awareness of other language domains affect spelling accuracy? What makes a word irregular for spelling? Can a word be regular for reading and irregular for spelling? Can a word be irregular for reading and regular for spelling?
Activity On a sheet of notebook paper, make three columns — Regular, Rule, and Irregular. Analyze and sort the following groups of words according to their spellings: Group One: farm, cow, chick, lamb, duck, digging, egg, barn, plentiful, field Group Two: transportation, car, plane, shipping, vehicle, driving, train, barge, steamer, rocket Group Three: fruit, grape, cherry, banana, kiwi, strawberry, raspberry, peach, apple, lime
Readings & Resources Moats, L.C. (1999). Spelling: Development, disability and instruction. Timonium, MD: York Press. (Available from PRO- ED, ) Moats, L.C. (2000). Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co.Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers Schupack, H., & Wilson, B. (1997). The “R” Book, Reading, Writing & Spelling: The Multisensory Structured Language Approach. Baltimore: The International Dyslexia Association.
Resources Carreker, S. (2002). Scientific spelling. Bellaire, TX: Neuhaus Education Center. Hall, N. (2001). Spellwell, book C. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service. Larsen, S.C., Hammill, D.D., & Moats, L. (1999). Test of Written Spelling, Fourth Edition (TWS-4.). Austin, TX: PRO- ED. Rudginsky, L.T., & Haskell, E.C. (1985). How to Teach Spelling: Resource and Method for Planning Spelling Lessons. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
Links Alternative Education: Training Modules or Clusters of Competencies This site provides 17 training modules on various topics for college instructors, staff developers, and teachers. Module 13 provides strategies for enhancing decoding, spelling, and vocabulary through morphology.Alternative Education: Training Modules or Clusters of Competencies Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts This site provides resources for reading and language arts teachers working with struggling readers and writers.Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts