4To understand Phonemic Awareness, you need to understand the broader category: Phonological Awareness
5Basic Levels of Phonological Awareness RhymingSyllablesManipulating and Identifying Onset and RimeCounting Words in a Sentence
6And, last but not least, Phonemic Awareness And, last but not least, Phonemic Awareness. It also falls under the same umbrella of auditory skills.
7Phonemic AwarenessPhonemic awareness skills also fall within a hierarchy from “basic” to “complex”Phonemic segmentation is considered a benchmark for demonstrating a complex level of phonemic awareness.Example: How many sounds/ phonemes in ship?/sh/ /i/ /p/=3
8Findings from National Reading Panel All young children benefit from phonemic awareness trainingThe most effective approach: direct and systematicUsing letters with phonemic awareness training is effectiveLess is more!Small group instruction is effective
9Why is it so important?Phonemic awareness turns out to be the single best predictor of risk for early reading failure (p. 90)Dyslexia is associated with the “phonological component of language” so early detection of difficulties with phonemic awareness is critical.Research suggests that intervention programs aimed at phonemic awareness are effective.
11Phonics Definition Goal: Paired association between letters and the letter sounds they representTeaches sound-symbol correspondences of the approximately 44 sounds in the English spoken languageGoal:Help children use the sound-symbol relationship to read and write words.Provide children with carefully sequenced, systematic direct instruction
12National Reading Panel Phonics InstructionSystematic and explicit phonics instruction is more effective than non-systematic or no phonics instruction.Systematic and explicit phonics instruction significantly improves kindergarten and first-grade children’s word recognition and spelling.Systematic and explicit phonics instruction significantly improves children’s reading comprehension.Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is effective for children from various social and economic levels.Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is particularly beneficial for children who are having difficulty learning to read and who are at risk for developing future reading problems.Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is most effective when introduced early (K or 1).
13Approaches to Phonics Instruction Synthetic (explicit) phonics--Children learn how to convert letters or letter combinations into sounds, and then how to blend the sounds together to form recognizable words. Children have learned the letters m, a, n and the corresponding sounds /m/ /a/ /n/. They blend them to make the word man.Analytic (implicit) phonics--Children learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce sounds in isolation. Children see and say the word man. The teacher tells the students that the letter m makes the beginning sound in man.Analogy-based phonics--Children learn to use parts of word families they know to identify words they don’t know that have similar parts. Children use their knowledge of key words such as must and ate to read the word frustrate.Phonics through Spelling--Children learn to segment words into phonemes and to select letters for those phonemes. Children learn to compare unknown words to words they already know. Children focus on phonics during writing experiences.
14Phonics Activities should include: Letter recognition Students practice matching, identifying, and ordering letters in the alphabet ~Letter-sound correspondenceStudents practice identifying and matching sounds to letters (initial, final, and medial)Onset and RimeStudents practice identifying initial consonant and any consonants that follow it; then practice blending, sorting, and segmenting the onset and rimeWord studyStudents practice sorting, blending, segmenting, and manipulating the sounds of letters in words and practice identifying high-frequency wordsSyllable PatternsStudents practice blending and segmenting syllables in wordsMorpheme StructuresStudents practice blending compound words, roots, and affixes
16Fluency What is reading fluency? Why is fluency important? “Ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression.”Report of the National Reading Panel (p. 3-5)Why is fluency important?“Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.”National Institute for Literacy (NIFL), 2001, p. 22Fluent readers are able to focus their attention on understanding text.
17Fluency What are the essential components? Accuracy and Automaticity of Decoding ProcessesReaders decode words accuratelyReaders decode words effortlesslyReading Speed or RateReaders read with an age or grade level appropriate rateReading speed is adjusted for purpose and text difficultyExpression and ProsodyReaders read with smoothness, phrasing, and inflection.ComprehensionReaders comprehend important ideas in connected text.
18Fluency What instruction helps develop fluency? Speed Drills Phrase ReadingRepeated ReadingPaired ReadingChoral ReadingReader’s TheatreBooks on Tape
19Fluency How can we monitor students’ progress? Assess fluency regularly and systematicallyListen to students read aloudTake timed readings and compare performance with normsAdjust instruction, if necessary, based on:Progress monitoring assessmentsObservational dataWhy is monitoring progress important?Motivating to studentsUseful in setting instructional goals
21Vocabulary Vocabulary is.. Importance of Vocabulary The words we must know to communicate effectively.Oral vocabularyWords we use in speaking or recognize in listening.Reading vocabularyWords we recognize in reading or use in writing.Importance of VocabularyLearning to readBeginning readers have a much more difficult time reading words that are not part of their oral vocabulary.Reading comprehensionReaders can not understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean.
22VocabularyMost vocabulary is learned indirectly through everyday experiences with oral language as children:Engage in daily oral languageListen to adults read to themRead extensively on their ownSome vocabulary requires direct instruction in the form of:Specific word instruction- explicit teaching of individual word meaning.Word learning instruction- teaching of strategies for deriving word meaning.How to use dictionaries and other reference aids.Knowledge of common affixes, base and root words.Using context clues.
23Vocabulary The vocabulary words selected for instruction should be: ImportantWords that are important for understanding a concept or the text.UsefulWords that are likely to be seen and used again.DifficultWords that are particularly difficult.
25Comprehension Comprehension is the reason for reading Good readers are purposeful and actively engaged in the textText comprehension can be improved by using the following six comprehension strategies:Monitoring Comprehension:Teaches students to be aware of what they do understand, identify what they do not understand and use strategies to resolve problems with text comprehension
26Comprehension 2. Using graphic and semantic organizers: Helps students focus on text structure as they readProvides students with tools they can use to visually examine relationships in a textHelps students write summaries of text3. Answering questionsGives students a purpose for readingFocuses students’ attention on the textEncourages active thinking as they readEncourages monitoring of comprehensionHelps students connect text to previously learned material
27Comprehension 4. Generating questions: Improves students’ active processing of textPromotes students to self-monitor for understanding5. Summarizing:Helps students identify main ideaAssists students in connecting main ideaAllows students to eliminate unnecessary informationHelps students remember what they read
28Comprehension 6. Recognizing story structure Promotes greater appreciation, understanding and memory for storiesAllows students to see how contents of a story are organized into a plotEffective comprehension strategy instruction:Is explicit and directCan be accomplished through cooperative learningHelps readers use comprehension strategies flexibly and in combination
30Our Objectives Define purposes of writing Think about what good writing instruction isExamine some of the difficulties students who struggle encompassExplore and share strategies that facilitate skill in writing for students who struggle
31Agenda Definitions, questions about writing Reading Rocket webcast or power pointDiscussionPower point presentation on Technology and Writing Instruction
32Overarching Questions What are some of the purposes of writing and why do we teach it in school? In what ways does writing relate to reading? How have you integrated writing across the curriculum? What are some other ways that you might incorporate writing into other content areas? What are some of the more difficult areas in teaching the writing process that you have experienced with your students?
33Begin at the BeginningThink about your own experiences with writing in school. Write about something from them that stands out in your mind, and how it has impacted you as a teacher. Define the purposes of writing and goals that you have when working with your students on writing.
35DebatesShould writing be taught before proficiency in decoding, spelling and handwriting?Do students need full mastery of alphabetic principle before beginning writing?Do students need full mastery of phoneme awareness before beginning writing?
36Often under-taught, yet.. Teaches organization/self expressionTeaches forms of text: narrative, expository, etcConnects reading comprehension with written formConnects vocabulary with comprehension (transitional words, conjunctions, parts of speech)
37Direct instruction is needed within the workshop Teaches development of sentence to paragraph to essayGoal of sentence writing is to write compound and complex sentences: enhances comprehensionGoal of sentence writing is to improve revision and editing skills: enhances critical thinkingGoal of sentence is to apply knowledge of grammar and structure, enhances clarity of self expression and understanding of author’s craft
38Strategies for Reluctant Writers Process approachPreplanning and organizingWriting the draftProofing/revisionEditingFinal versions
39StrategiesEncourage students to visualize situation, action, characterRole-play situations prior to organizing the informationPlay with wordsCreate silly situations and have students verbally elaborate upon what might happen next
43Paragraphs and Compositions Persuasive writingDescriptive writingCompare and contrast composition
44Integral for success: time, model, direct PlanOutlineRevise and editWrite final copy
45OutlinesQuick outline – develops single paragraph and intended to help students discern basic structure of paragraph: topic sentence, supporting details, conclusionTransitional Outline – beginning of composition writing: two or three paragraphsMultiple Paragraph Outline- compositions of 3 or more paragraphs
46OutlineSelect topic that will be the basis for title when writing the draftDiscuss purpose and audienceWrite main idea as a phrase or category for each paragraphWrite supporting details
47Teaching SpellingTaken from: Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills by Judith R. Birsh
48Objectives After this presentation participants will Understand the importance of spelling instruction and how spelling developsLearn reliable spelling patterns and rules of EnglishLearn activities, procedures, and lesson planning for effective spelling instruction
49Spelling Development Requires phonological knowledge the knowledge of and sensitivity to the phonological structure of words in a language.Orthographic knowledgeOrthographic knowledge refers to the knowledge of how the sounds (phonemes) of a language are mapped to the symbols (letters) of that language for use in reading and writing.Begins with visual strategies
50Prephonetic Stage Also called the precommunicative Stage Stage in spelling development in which not all of the sounds of the word are represented by letters (e.g., JS for dress).Differentiate writing from drawingImitate the print they have seenUse ltter-like or number-like formsShows lack of understanding of the concept of a word
51Semiphonetic StageStage in spelling development in which a child usually strings consonants together to represent speech sounds in words and syllables (e.g., NTR for enter).Child becomes more aware that individual letters represent individual soundsUses incomplete but reasonable phonetic representations of words
52Phonetic StageStage in spelling development in which every sound is representedThe complete knowledge of conventional orthography is not.Aware of not only sounds but also the mouth position used to make sounds.
53Important Terms to Know PhoneticsThe system of speech sounds in any specific language.Phonemesplace of articulationvoiced and unvoicedopen, blocked, partially blockedcontinuous and stop consonant soundsAllophonesSlight variations in production of vowels or consonants that are predictable variants of a phoneme (e.g., /p/ in pot and spot, /a/ in fast and tank).
54Knowledge Necessary for Spelling PhonologyThe science of speech sounds, including the study of the development of speech sounds in one language or the comparison of speech sound development across different languages.PhonicsPaired association between letters and letter sounds; an approach to teaching of reading and spelling that emphasizes sound-symbol relationships, especially in early instruction.Morphology1) The internal structure of the meaningful units within words and the relationships among words in a language.2) The study of word formation patterns.Word originsInvented spelling
55Knowledge Necessary for Spelling Regular wordsTransparent spellingsMultiple spellingssituationinitial, medial, final
56Spelling Rules The Floss Rule The Rabbit Rule The Doubling Rule Double the consonants f, l and s at the end of a one syllable word following a short vowel. Common exceptions to this rule are gas, yes, and bus.The Rabbit RuleDouble the consonants b, d, g, m, n and p after a short vowel in a two syllable word.The Doubling RuleIf a one-syllable word has one short vowel and one consonant at the end, double the final consonant before adding an ending that begins with a vowel; for example, stop/stopping and plan/planned, but not mean/meaner and milk/milked.The Dropping RuleIf a word ends in a silent "e," drop the "e" before adding an ending that starts with a vowel; for example, use/using, dance/dancer, and fame/famous, but not place/placement and care/careful.The Changing RuleIf a word ends in a consonant plus "y," change the "y" to "i" before adding an ending except -ing; for example, ready/readiness, lucky/luckily, and duty/dutiful, but not study/studying.
57Formal Spelling Instruction Should Include the Following Phonological awareness trainingOpportunities for kindergarteners and beginning first graders to experiment with writing using invented spellingMultisensory guided discovery teaching introductions to the sound-symbol correspondences, patterns, rules, and morphemes of English, beginning in the middle of first grade and using a systematic, sequential, cumulative order of presentationOpportunities to analyze and sort wordsPractice using multisensory structured proceduresA multisensory procedure for learning irregular wordsOpportunities to use the words in writing through dictation and personal writing
58Study QuestionsHow are reading and spelling alike, and how do they differ?How is spelling important to reading and writing development?Define orthography, phonetics, phonology, phonics, and morphology.How does awareness of other language domains affect spelling accuracy?What makes a word irregular for spelling? Can a word be regular for reading and irregular for spelling? Can a word be irregular for reading and regular for spelling?
59ActivityOn a sheet of notebook paper, make three columns — Regular, Rule, and Irregular. Analyze and sort the following groups of words according to their spellings:Group One: farm, cow, chick, lamb, duck, digging, egg, barn, plentiful, fieldGroup Two: transportation, car, plane, shipping, vehicle, driving, train, barge, steamer, rocketGroup Three: fruit, grape, cherry, banana, kiwi, strawberry, raspberry, peach, apple, lime
60Readings & Resources Moats, L. C. (1999) Readings & Resources Moats, L.C. (1999). Spelling: Development, disability and instruction. Timonium, MD: York Press. (Available from PRO-ED, )Moats, L.C. (2000). Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co.Schupack, H., & Wilson, B. (1997). The “R” Book, Reading, Writing & Spelling: The Multisensory Structured Language Approach. Baltimore: The International Dyslexia Association.
61ResourcesCarreker, S. (2002). Scientific spelling. Bellaire, TX: Neuhaus Education Center.Hall, N. (2001). Spellwell, book C. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.Larsen, S.C. , Hammill, D.D., & Moats, L. (1999). Test of Written Spelling, Fourth Edition (TWS-4.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Rudginsky, L.T., & Haskell, E.C. (1985). How to Teach Spelling: Resource and Method for Planning Spelling Lessons. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
62LinksAlternative Education: Training Modules or Clusters of Competencies This site provides 17 training modules on various topics for college instructors, staff developers, and teachers. Module 13 provides strategies for enhancing decoding, spelling, and vocabulary through morphology.Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts This site provides resources for reading and language arts teachers working with struggling readers and writers.