Presentation on theme: "Recommendations for Morgan’s Instruction 1.Instruction for improving reading fluency 2.Instruction for improving word recognition, word decoding, and."— Presentation transcript:
Recommendations for Morgan’s Instruction 1.Instruction for improving reading fluency 2.Instruction for improving word recognition, word decoding, and encoding skills 3.Instruction for improving reading vocabulary and reading comprehension 4.Trade books available on tape so that Morgan can use the VIBE player to assist with reading these books. 5.Promote Morgan’s participation in regular classroom discussions of these books when her schedule permits. To accomplish this, use the VIBE player and recordings of the trade books being used in the regular fifth grade language arts program. 1
Long Term… Use of the Stetson program should be discontinued (online reading program offered by Stetson University). Exposure to content knowledge should be emphasized over demonstration of writing, planning, and organization skills through long-term projects. Continued instruction in the efficient application of decoding skills throughout her elementary, junior, and senior high school years. Given the nature of Morgan’s learning and producing difficulties, it would be reasonable to consider reducing the number of science and social studies projects that Morgan is expected to complete. 2
Why do students like Morgan Struggle? Perception vs. Reality 3
If… Morgan has been tested on Vocabulary and Comprehension. and Morgan scores low on Vocabulary and Comprehension Tests. then problem was assumed to be in Vocabulary and Comprehension. 4
Morgan needs more instruction in Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategies. and Morgan’s teachers have been trained in Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategies and are able to teach them well. 5 Therefore,
The Reality Morgan is a Struggling Reader who is deficient in the underpinnings of Vocabulary and Comprehension. 6
Underpinnings: a solid foundation laid below ground level to support or strengthen a building. 7 Phonological Awareness Automaticity PhonicsFluency Each of these skills need to be in place for students to reach their full potential in Vocabulary and Comprehension.
More Fluent Readers Focus their attention on making connections between the ideas in the text and their background knowledge. Therefore, they are able to focus on comprehension. 8
Less Fluent Readers Must focus their attention primarily on decoding individual words. Therefore, little attention is left for comprehending the text. 9
The Goal for Morgan: Become an Independent Comprehending Reader Teachers are comfortable teaching Vocabulary and Comprehension skills. Teachers are less comfortable teaching Phonological Awareness Phonics skills Automaticity Fluency 10
Sonday System aka Orton Gillingham Approach for Teaching Reading Develops ( Phonological Awareness, Phonics, Automaticity, Fluency). Provides time in the lesson plan for Vocabulary and Comprehension practice. 11
Development of Phonological Awareness and Phonics In general, children’s awareness of the phonological structure of language develops from larger units of sounds (e.g., words in a sentence, syllables in a word) to smaller units (e.g., onset- rimes, phonemes). Skills such as rhyming and alliteration develop earlier and skills such as sound blending, segmenting, and manipulation of phonemes develop later.
Teaching Phonological Awareness and Phonics Includes such activities as the following: – Listening for words that begin with the same sound – Clapping the number of syllables in words and phonemes in words – Blending and segmenting words by syllables and sounds – Segmenting and manipulating sounds and syllables
Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences Expert estimates of the number of speech sounds or phonemes in English vary from 40 to 52. For purposes of teaching students, most estimates are about 44. In learning to read and write, students learn more than 100 spellings (graphemes) for these phonemes. The largest division of phonemes is consonants (C) or vowels (V).
Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences (Continued) The English language also makes use of consonant digraphs and consonant blends: – Consonant digraphs are two consonants that represent one sound (e.g., ph for /f/). – Consonant blends combine the sounds of two or more consonants so that they are clustered together.
Linguistic Approach: Onset-Rime and Word Families The linguistic approach uses controlled text and word families (onset-rimes, phonograms, or spelling patterns) such as -at, -ight, and - ent to teach word recognition. This approach is particularly useful for students with reading problems. The "onset" is the initial phonological unit of any word (e.g. c in cat) and the term "rime" refers to the string of letters that follow, usually a vowel and final consonants (e.g. at in cat). Not all words have onsets. The "onset" is the initial phonological unit of any word (e.g. c in cat) and the term "rime" refers to the string of letters that follow, usually a vowel and final consonants (e.g. at in cat). Not all words have onsets.
Orton Gillingham: 6 Steps Read Sounds Spell Sounds Read Words Spell Words Introduce New Material Read Aloud 17 Teach Underpinnings Teach New Material Apply & Practice what’s been learned
Template: Read Words Phonics Blend known sounds into words automatically Automaticity Response is quick & accurate Vocabulary Direct & Indirect Instruction (check for definitions, context, multiple meanings, etc.) Comprehension Practice at word level Eases transition to sentence level.
Template: Spell Words 21 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Read and write sentences with prosody (intonation, chunking, phrasing, quick & accurate) Vocabulary Direct & Indirect Instruction (check for definitions, context, multiple meanings, etc.) Comprehension Practice at sentence level eases transition to book level.
Template: 22 Steps 1-4 in Lesson Plan repeated Phonemic Awareness Phonics Automaticity (leads to fluency) Vocabulary Comprehension
Read Aloud Time in lesson for Comprehension and Vocabulary Practice 23 Phonemic Awareness Blend sounds to pronounce words Phonics Apply rules to read words automatically Fluency Read with prosody to show meaning Vocabulary Direct & Indirect Instruction (check for definitions, context, multiple meanings, etc.) Comprehension All underpinning skills in place allows freedom for comprehension at text level.
Components of a Daily Lesson 1. REVIEW of sounds, key words and motor patterns previously taught. (These sounds are presented on Alphabet Cards). This includes phonograms, affixes, and red words (non-phonetic words). The student views the letter(s) (visual), says the name of the letter, names the key picture, says it's sound (each auditory), and then sky writes the letter (writes in the air, arm extended (kinesthetic). 2. NEW SKILL: Key sound(s), key word and motor pattern to be taught in the curriculum sequence is presented. This part of the sound lesson includes five components: 1. Phonograms,( letter group with particular )2. Grammar rules, 3.Syllabication, 4. Spelling rules, and 5. Red words (non-phonetic words). 24
3. SPELLING DICTATION: Here the students apply previously taught skills as well as the new skill in writing. It is important to select words that can be spelled with skills previously taught and red words learned, to a mastery level, in the spelling and sentence dictation. Writing includes individual phonetic words, as well as sentences dictated by the instructor and student originated sentences. 4. READING: The students practice the skill of decoding words on lists of isolated words, corresponding to the skill taught. 5. REINFORCEMENT: Teacher made activities and/or phonetic workbooks provide practice of the skills. 25
Group Work Each group will be assigned an area of instruction from the list of Morgan’s recommendations. Refer to #s 1,2,3 on slide #1. Identify two strategies to address this area. Describe the steps to teaching this strategy to Morgan, as well as how you would use it in a lesson taught to an entire class. Vaughn and Bos is an excellent resource for strategies. Keep in mind Morgan’s age and the social /emotional qualities of that age, as well as the learned attitudes and behaviors of a child with learning difficulties. Demos on October 28. Each pair will teach this strategy to the entire class. Please provide me with a hard copy that can be posted on the wiki.
Close Reading Strategy “Again and Again” 27 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddNfpmNL4bE
28 Multisensory Method for Spelling and Vocabulary 1. Meaning & pronunciation -look at word, say it, use in sentence. 2. Imagery -trace the word, see the word, write the word. 3. Recall -Look at the word, close their eyes and see it, spell the word orally. 4. Writing the word -Write the word from memory and check the spelling against the original. 5. Mastery -Cover the word and write it 3 times. 6. Keep a glossary.
BUILDING VOCABULARY Prior to each lesson: Explain vocabulary using content specific examples. Illustrate vocabulary using visual aids, context, discussion, interaction, feedback. “Does this word look like any word you already know?” e.g., “synthesis” looks like “synthetic” (Fashion conscious teenagers may know that one.) Students are given a list of new vocabulary at the beginning of a new topic. They make flash cards, one word to a card, with the definition or a key word on the back of the card. Point out familiar roots and affixes (prefixes and suffixes), and their meanings. “Which part of the word is familiar to you? Where have you seen it before and what does it mean? Make spot checks of students’ cards, even giving extra credit. As students accumulate cards, they can punch a hole in each card and place them on a large key ring.
Vocabulary Practice TERM TOPICS Make a chart of major terms for a topic. Define them, adding an explanatory phrase, 3 examples, and 3 non examples. BOXING and SORTING As new words are introduced use boxes with key terms as category headings to see relationships and understand meanings. Always pronounce words. For review, shuffle cards and organize under their headings.