2DescriptionTeams must design, conduct and report the findings of an experiment conducted on site.50 minutesNeed to come up with the experiment quicklyThe event supervisor must assign a question/topic area that determines the focus of the experiment.Must have a relationship between independent and dependent variable.
3Description Up to 3 team members Outline or Rubric will be provided The more, the better in order to be able to complete all parts of the experiment/rubric.Outline or Rubric will be providedExamplesAdditional paper will also be providedMay or may not include graph paper
4Description All teams must be provided with the same materials. List of materials will be provided.Card or list or list on boardKept secret until the start of the eventStudents must use at least two of the provided materials to design and conduct an experiment.
5Items the students need to bring Safety GogglesChemicalWriting instrumentsTimepieceRulerNon-programmable calculator
6Statement of Problem Not a yes/no answered question Include independent and dependent variablesTestableHow does the length of the rubber band change when the metal washers are hung on it?
7HypothesisMust be a prediction between the independent and dependent variableMost often an if-then statement but not alwaysInclude a rationale for the hypothesisIf the number of washers increases, then the length of the rubber band will also increase. In bungee jumping, the rope is stretched further if the person is heavier.
8Variables Independent The factor that is manipulated – you have controlOperationally definedAt least three levelsThe independent variable is the number of metal washers (3, 6 or 9) hung on the rubber band.
9VariablesDependentThe factor that responds to the Independent variable – you have no controlOperationally definedThe dependent variable is the length (in cm) that the rubber band stretches.
10VariablesConstantsThe items in the experiment that remain (or should remain ) the same throughout the experiment.Need at least 4 for the points!!Size of washers, mass of washers, size of rubber band, mass of rubber band, size of paper clip, mass of paper clip, the place where the rubber band was hung, the place on the paperclip where the washers were hung, the person measuring, the person adding the washers, etc.
11Experimental Control (Standard of Comparison) Standard to which the observed experimental effects are comparedObject not being tested (see below)Drop heights – could be the shortest height or the highest height depending on the hypothesisSometimes no control group but must be stated with rationaleThe experimental control is the rubber band being hung with no washers as this eliminates a variable. Therefore, we can compare the other data gathered to the control.
12Materials Materials list must be separate from procedure Only list materials used – be specificUse a list formatCentimeter ruler2 – 5 cm long paperclips1 rubber band (4.8 cm long)PaperPencil
13Procedure Numbered steps in logical sequence Diagrams, if possible Give enough information so that the judge could duplicate your experiment at home and get the same resultsRepeated trials
14Procedure example Gather materials Set up your paperclips and bend out the outer end (see diagram#1). Then slip the rubber band on to the inner edge and into the loop of another paperclip (diagram#1).Repeat step #3, three times and record data in data table.Find averageClean up area
15Qualitative Observations Using your senses, what is happeningNeed to have observations at the beginning, middle and end…throughout the experiment!!Observations may have nothing to do with experiment but you may need them laterSummarize
16Qualitative Observations We noticed during the experiment that we may not have always measured the length of the rubber band accurately with the ruler.Someone’s rubber band broke and scared us.Someone opened the door.
17Quantitative Observations – Data Table Data Table with rows and columns labeled.Measurement labels includedAverageCalculation examplesDivision C only – Significant figures
18Quantitative Observations – Data Table Number of WashersTrial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average4.13 cm4.18 cm4.20 cm4.17 cm35.12 cm5.16 cm5.08 cm66.20 cm6.23 cm6.26 cm97.93 cm8.02 cm7.98 cm7.976 cm
19GraphsGraph independent variable on the x-axis and the dependent variable on the y-axisTitle and axis headingsConstant spacing in graphGraph appropriate for dataNeat
20Statistics Average Median, mode, range Division C only Range of standard deviationRegression analysis (line of best fit)Other appropriate statistics
21To Find Standard Deviation Find the mean of the scoresSubtract the mean from each individual scoreSquare each of the differences obtained in Step #2Add all of the squares obtained in Step #3Divide the total from Step #4 b the total number of values minus 1 (n-1)Take the square root of Step #5
22Analysis and Interpretation All statements must be supported by data.Discuss any unusual data points and whyDiscuss trends and what they meanDiscuss the statistics and what they meanWeakest areaMore than one sentenceIf nothing unusual, then say soDescriptive as possible
23Analysis and Interpretation When there were no washers on the rubber band, it stretched 4.13 cm in Trial 1, 4.18 cm in Trial 2, 4.20 cm in Trial 3, the average was 4.17 cm, the median was 4.18 cm there was no mode.Range is used for average the less the range the more accurate the experiment. It seems that all our trials were fairly accurate. It also seems that as more washers were added, rubber band stretches farther.
24Possible Experimental Errors Not only point out the errors that could have occurred but how the error might impact the data – BE SPECIFICHuman reaction time and other human errorsRandom vs Systemic errors
25Possible Experimental Errors One possible error in this experiment deals with the fact the human eye isn’t perfect, nor are we, and it is likely that when reading the ruler, we might decide on a measurement that is slightly high or slightly low.This changing of the variable pieces may or may not have affected our data, but after completing the experiment we realized that it might have been a mistake on our part not to have evenly distributed the washers before each and every trial
26Conclusion Restate the hypothesis State reasons whether the results support or refute your hypothesisYou never prove anythingExplain how the data impacts your hypothesisIf you refute your hypothesis, then propose a new one.
27ConclusionThe purpose of this experiment is to test how the mass of the washers affect the length of a rubber band. Our hypothesis was, “If the number of washers increases, then the length of the rubber band will also increase. This hypothesis was supported because the average length of the rubber band with 0 washers was 4.17 cm…This data shows a steady increase in the rubber band’s length as the number of washers weighing down on it increases. However, further experimentation is needed for accurate results.
28Applications and Recommendations Give suggestions for the improvement of this experimentGive suggestions for other ways to test your hypothesisGive suggestions for future experiments that would help to understand the statement of problem better.Practical applications.
29Applications and Recommendations One recommendation for future attempts at this experiment would be to choose a device that holds the washers in the exact same position every time, unlike our bent paperclips which allowed for some movement.Use a camera for more accurate measurements.Dumb bells and exercise bandsBungee jumping – Practical application
30Scoring See rubric Tie breakers Safety Procedures – DQ VariablesProcedureAnalysis of resultsGraphsData TableMost pointsSafety Procedures – DQNot addressing the assigned question – ranked below those that did
31Thoughts Brainstorm for only 5 minutes Divide the tasks 50 minutes total for the competitionMake task vague and specificDivide the tasksEveryone must writeOnly 50 minutes total for the competition
32Thoughts Ask to tear the pages apart Could lose points if not permitted or not put back together in the proper orderMake sure all sections are labeled with letter and titlePractice, score and keep all experimentsGood Review for competitionShows growth and problem areas
33Thoughts Train with alternates Practice with lots or little equipment Never know competition schedule or flu schedulePractice with lots or little equipmentSame experiment
34ExamplesDevise and carry out an investigation to show the relationship between volume and mass is linear.Your experiment must deal with one of the variables of a pendulum to identify the effect it has on the period of the pendulum.In honor of Sir Isaac Newton, your experiment must involve dropping objects.Today’s experiment must involve friction.
35ExamplesUsing the following materials, conduct an experiment relating to some aspect of CONSTRUCTION.Show a relationship between the mechanical advantage of a lever and its efficiency.Your experiment must use the paper towel, napkin and brown paper towel in some manner.
36Your TaskDesign an airplane experiment using the newspaper, ditto paper and construction paper.MaterialsThree types of paper (8.5 in by 11 in)Measuring tape (Shared)RulerPaper clips (3 per group)