Presentation on theme: "Scientific Thinking Physical Science. If we just read about Science and DON’T DO Science, we will NOT have the learning experiences necessary to be successful."— Presentation transcript:
If we just read about Science and DON’T DO Science, we will NOT have the learning experiences necessary to be successful in Science. Let’s Do A Science Project!
Effective Student Investigations Observing Hypothesizing Measuring Classifying Collecting and Interpreting Data Predicting Experimenting Inferring Communicating Activities that actively involve students in the process skills…
Nature of Science Standards Met When Working on a Science Project! The student knows that it is important to keep accurate records and descriptions to provide information and clues on causes of discrepancies in repeated experiments. The student knows that a successful method to explore the natural world is to observe and record, and then analyze & communicate the results. The student knows that to compare and contrast observations and results is an essential skill in science. The student understands that people, alone or in groups, invent new tools to solve problems and do work that affects aspects of life outside of science. The student knows that data are collected and interpreted in order to explain an event or concept. The student knows that through the use of science processes and knowledge, people can solve problems, make decisions and form new ideas.
Start With A Diary! Remember that a science project is the diary! The board is simply the display. Record all information in the diary. Later, if you decide to display it for others, share it by creating a board!
When beginning to plan for a science project, start with the creation of a topic statement. I am interested in studying: weather, sound, water, gravity, floating, electricity, goop, vibrations, snow, force, magnetism, weight, or flight? weather? sports? plants? animals? music & sound?
Swing Time A science investigation into the physical effects of swinging pendulums.
What is the effect of ________ on the speed of a swinging pendulum? Make a list of the possible things we could change (manipulated variable) in this investigation. Research Question Research Question
A research question should be phrased properly. It should reflect student understanding of what they are testing. Does __X__ affect __Y__? OR What is the effect of __X__ on __Y__? Research Question
The research question is… What is the effect of mass on the period of ten pendulum swings?
A science content statement should describe your topic using scientific language. It should be as thorough as possible. Use library books, textbooks, encyclopedias, and internet resources to help you find information. Then write down what you learned. Science Content Statement
Questions to help develop a Science Content Statement… What do we know about pendulums? What do we know about motion? What do we know about friction and its affect on objects? What is gravity?
Science Content Vocabulary frictionA force between two surface rubbing together. Friction works against motion. motionA change in position of an object. gravityAn attractive force between two or more objects over a distance. The more mass an object has the stronger the gravitational force. Newton’s Laws Isaac Newton established laws of motion to explain consistent movement.
Science Content Statement Now, try writing your content statement!
Science Content Statement A pendulum is any mass (or “bob”) attached to a point of suspension which swings back and forth on a rope or chain. Pendulums can be found in old clocks and other machinery. A playground swing is a pendulum as is the flying trapeze. The mass will swing back and forth after a first push, because of the influence of gravity. The time for one complete vibration (from the starting point and back again) is called the “period” and is measured in seconds.
Manipulated Variable The one thing (or object) you will change in the experiment
What is the manipulated variable in your investigation? The manipulated variable is ________. Record your manipulated variable in your diary! Manipulated Variable
The manipulated variable is the mass at the end of the pendulum.
What will you measure in this investigation that will determine if there is an effect? Now, write your responding variable in your diary! Responding Variable
The responding variable is the speed of ten period swings in seconds.
Set-Up Conditions Also known as the “constants” these are the things (materials & procedures) that will remain constant to ensure that the manipulated variable is the only thing being tested. Now, discuss and write your own set-up conditions. Remember to add details!
Set-up Conditions Length of string (40cm) Same size dowel rod or pencil Mass of washers Size of metal paperclip The same stopwatch used for all trials Same person as time keeper The angle of the drop
Predictions There are three ways a manipulated variable can affect the responding variable. 1.The responding variable can increase. 2.The responding variable can decrease. 3.There may be no effect on the responding variable.
1._________________ will increase the speed of ten pendulum periods. 2._________________ will decrease the speed of ten pendulum periods. 3. _________________ will have no effect on the speed of ten pendulum periods Predictions Now, write your three prediction statements. Add your manipulated variable to the blanks below.
Predictions 1.More mass will increase the speed of ten pendulum periods. 2.More mass will decrease the speed of ten pendulum periods. 3.Mass (more or less) will have no effect on the speed of ten pendulum periods.
Hypothesis A hypothesis is a statement that predicts what you think will most likely happen in the experiment.
Go back to the predictions…. Which prediction do you think is most likely to happen? Hypothesis 1.More mass will increase the speed of ten pendulum periods. 2.More mass will decrease the speed of ten pendulum periods. 3.Mass (more or less) will have no effect on the speed of ten pendulum periods.
Hypothesis The pendulum with the most mass will increase the speed of ten periods due to the force of gravity pulling on the mass.
Materials This is the list of items that will be used in the investigation. It should be very specific and include the size, quantity, and descriptions of each material needed so that someone else could duplicate your project.
Materials List Now, write a detailed materials list for your investigation.
Materials List String (40cm) Meter stick Dowel rod or pencil Washers (“bobs”), two or more Paperclip (attached at the end of the 40cm of string, used to attach washers) Desk or table Stop watch Masking tape (to attach dowel to desk) Data table
Experiment Directions This is a step-by step list of how you set up the investigation and what you did (or how each item in your materials list will be used) and the exact order it was done.
Now, write the directions for your experiment! 1.Gather all materials.
Experiment Directions 1.Gather all materials. 2.Tape a dowel rod or pencil so that it hangs over the table/desk edge. 3.Tie 40cm of string to the end of the dowel/pencil. The length of each pendulum is measured from the pivot point to the middle of the “bob”. Use a meter stick to measure accurately. 4.Tie a large paper clip to the end of the string. 5.Attach one metal washer to the paper clip. 6.Pull the pendulum back parallel with the table top. 7.Stopwatch timing begins at the release (not a push) of the mass (washer) and ends after the tenth period. 8.Record this data in your data chart. 9.Repeat for 10 trials. 10.Add a second mass (washer) and repeat steps 6 through 9.
Data Collection This is an organized and complete account of everything that was measured and observed in the experiment (using metric units). There should at least 10 trials.
Data Collection Trials 12345678910 Less Mass More Mass Manipulated Variable Average (Mean) Total
Graph This is a mathematical picture of the data, using (mean) averages to plot the data in the experiment.
Swing Time Graph Time in Seconds for 10 Periods Manipulated Variable (X) Graph the average of the trials. Responding Variable (Y)
Experiment Results Use the data and graphs (from the experiment) to explain what happened in the experiment. Did your manipulated variable affect your responding variable? If so, explain how?
Did the manipulated variable affect the responding variable? Now, examine your data and write your results statement! Results Statement:
Conclusion Explain whether or not your data supports, or fails to support your hypothesis. (give facts & reasons from your experiment)
Did the data support or fail to support your hypothesis? I predicted ____________________. My results (support, do not support) this prediction because _____________. Now, write your conclusion. Conclusion
Real World Uses This is a description of the ways, places, or situations where the information from your experiment might be useful.
Real World Uses Now, write your real world uses!
Real World Uses Today the primary use of a pendulum is in timekeeping, such as a grandfather clock. Knowing the effect mass has on a pendulum would definitely help the man on the flying trapeze. He would understand that no matter how big or small the other aerial artist was, the trapeze would always come back to him at the same time. Most children enjoy playing with a pendulum we call a swing.
Encourage students to write a paragraph which includes thoughts, concerns, discoveries, or further questions to explore. What might you do differently next time? (give reasons) Reflections
Research Question Prediction Hypothesis Science Content Statement Manipulated Variable Responding Variable Set Up Conditions Directions Materials Diary Data Collection Graphs Results Statement Conclusion Statement Real World Uses Presentation Board for Experiment