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EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Science answers questions with experiments

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Begin by asking a question about your topic One that is testable with the materials at hand What is a good question for an experiment? DEFINE THE PROBLEM

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Now we need a hypothesis to guide our investigation. What is a hypothesis? Your best thinking about how the change you make might affect another factor. Tentative or trial solution to the question. An if ………… then ………… statement. No, It is NOT an educated guess!

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The independent variable is the variable that is purposely changed. It is the manipulated variable. The dependent variable changes in response to the independent variable. It is the responding variable. Be sure to operationally define each variable. Variables Variables are things that change.

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Constants in an Experiment What are constants in an experiment? Factors that are kept the same and not allowed to change

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The Control in an Experiment What is a control? The part of the experiment that serves as the standard of comparison. Why is a control necessary? It is the unchanged part of the experiment that detects the effects of hidden variables.

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Materials and Procedures A description of what you will use for your experiment, and how you will do it. Be sure to include: Levels of the Independent Variable Repeated Trials Drawing of Apparatus

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Levels of the Independent Variable How many different levels of the independent variable should we test? 3 ? 5? 10? The more the better?

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Repeated Trials What are repeated trials? The number of times that a level of the independent variable is tested. Why are repeated trials necessary? They reduce the possibility of chance errors affecting the results.

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Drawing of Experiment Include Labels to clearly identify the important parts of the experimental setup

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Qualitative Observations and Results What are qualitative observations? They are what you perceive that occurred during the course of your experiment. They are identification of trends in the data.

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Quantitative Observations and Results What are quantitative observations? Numbers in the form of raw data displayed in data tables and graphs

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Sample Data Table Title: The Effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable Column for independent variable Column for dependent variable Column for derived quantity Label – with units if necessary Label – with units if necessary – multiple trials included Label – with units if necessary. Example = average of trials 1 2 3 0 0 1 00 1 3 5 44 2 6 4 76 3 7 6 87 4 9 9 89

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Constructing a Graph What is the purpose of a graph? Graphs communicate in pictorial form the data collected in an experiment

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Graphs Title: The Effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable Independent Variable – include units and an appropriate scale DependentVariable – includeunits and anappropriate scale

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Bar vs. Line Graphs - Which Should I Use? The type of graph to use depends on the type of data collected. Discrete data are categorical like days of the week, color, and brand of battery. Intervals between the data have no meaning. Continuous data are associated with measurements involving a standard scale. Measurements should be able to show a trend or relationship. Intervals between data have meaning. USE A BAR GRAPH USE A LINE GRAPH Two kinds of data: Discrete and Continuous

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Constructing a Graph DRAW AND LABEL AXES X Axis - Independent Variable Y Axis - Dependent Variable Amount of Calcium Chloride (scoops) Temp. of Water ( o C)

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Constructing a Line Graph - DETERMINE SCALES FOR AXES X: Largest value – Smallest value = Range 10 scoops - 0 scoops = 10 scoops 10 scoops divided by 5 = 2 scoops Y: Largest value – Smallest value = Range 17 o C – 0 o C = 17 o C 17 o C divided by 5 = 3.4 or ~ 5 o C 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Amount of calcium chloride (scoops) Average Temp. change ( o C) Increase values on axes by 1, 2,5, 10 or multiples of 10. There should be about 5 numbered subdivisions on each axis.

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Constructing a Line Graph – PLOT DATA PAIRS 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Amount of calcium chloride (scoops) Average Temp. change (deg C)...... Data Pairs (0, 0) (2, 4) (4, 7) (6, 10) (8, 14) (10, 17)

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Constructing a Line Graph – DRAW A LINE-OF-BEST-FIT 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Amount of calcium chloride (scoops) Average Temp. change (deg C)......

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Constructing a Line Graph – TITLE THE GRAPH 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20 Amount of calcium chloride (scoops) Average Temp. change ( o C)...... THE EFFECT OF ADDING VARIOUS AMOUNTS OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF WATER The title should state the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

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Analysis and Interpretation of Results This is where you describe in words what is illustrated by your data as shown in your table and graph You also describe the meaning of the results

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Possible Experimental Errors What factors in your materials or procedure might have had an impact on your results?

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Conclusion Why or why not your results supported or did not support the hypothesis. Hypotheses are never wrong. They are either supported or not supported. Include reasons for the hypothesis to be supported or unsupported.

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Recommendations for Further Experimentation What are some practical applications of your results? What other questions that could be tested arise from your results?

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Writing A Statement of the Problem for the Experiment It should state: The Effect of the Independent Variable on the Dependent Variable. What is a good statement of the problem for The Helicopter ? What should it state? What is the effect of wing length on time of descent?

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More about our variables: The independent variable is the variable that is purposely changed. It is the manipulated variable. The dependent variable changes in response to the independent variable. It is the responding variable. What is the Helicopter independent variable? length of one wing as measured in centimeters What is the dependent variable? time of descent as measured in seconds

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Title for the Helicopter Experiment The Effect of Wing Length on the Length of Time the Helicopter Takes to Reach the Ground

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Another Look at Our Hypothesis INDEPENDENT VARIABLE If the length of the wings are increased, DEPENDENT VARIABLE then time of descent will increase.

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Constants in an Experiment Factors that are kept the same and not allowed to change What should be kept constant in theHelicopter? CONSTANTS Same structure of helicopters Same dropping technique Same dropping height

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The Control in an Experiment The part of the experiment that serves as the standard of comparison. What is a good control for the Helicopter? CONTROL Beginning length of wings (5 cm)

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Levels of the Independent Variable How many different levels of the independent variable should we test? Enough to clearly illustrate a trend in the data - 5cm, 6cm, 7cm, 8cm…..

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Repeated Trials How many repeated trials are needed in the Helicopter? At least 3, then calculate an average value for each level of the independent variable

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Drawing of Experiment Hold helicopter in the middle Drop from same spot each time

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Qualitative Observations and Results As we dropped the helicopter, we observed that sometimes they seemed to be affected by air currents. It appeared that helicopters with longer wingspans took a greater time to reach the ground

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Quantitative Observations Data Table and Graph

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Sample Data Table Title: The Effect of wing length on the time of descent Wing Length (cm) Average Descent Time (s) Descent Time (s) Trials 1 2 3 5678956789 3 5 4 4 4 5 6 5 6 7 5 6 7 8 6 7 9 7 8 8

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The Effect of Wing Length on Descent Time 5 6 7 8 9 4 5 6 7 8 Wing Length (cm) Average Descent Time (sec).....

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The Effect of Wing Length on Descent Time 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 Wing Length (cm) Average Descent Time (sec).....

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Analysis and Interpretation of Results While individual trial results showed some variation; overall, as average wing length increased from 5 through 9 centimeters, average time of descent also increased from 4 through 8 seconds. This shows a direct correlation.

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Possible Experimental Errors Although the average results supported the hypothesis, the individual trial results showed some variation. Some possible reasons for this could be due to air currents in the room or reaction time differences between the timer and the helicopter dropper.

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Conclusion The overall results supported the hypothesis. A possible reason for this could be due to increased surface area of the wing in contact with the air - allowing for greater air support.

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Recommendations for Further Experimentation/ Practical Applications Increased time of descent due to greater wing length suggests that increased wing length could lead to greater fuel efficiency of an actual helicopter. Other experiments investigating factors that would contribute to greater descent time might include: making modifications in the shape of the wings, changing the number of wing blades, and making folds in the wing blades

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