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Keeping A Scientific Journal I. Outline of each science project or journal entry (400 points) A. Write a Topic/Title at the top of the page (10) [Page1]

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Presentation on theme: "Keeping A Scientific Journal I. Outline of each science project or journal entry (400 points) A. Write a Topic/Title at the top of the page (10) [Page1]"— Presentation transcript:

1 Keeping A Scientific Journal I. Outline of each science project or journal entry (400 points) A. Write a Topic/Title at the top of the page (10) [Page1] B. Tell what you already know about the topic based on information(10) [Page 1] C. Identify the problem (20) [Page 1] 1. The problem asks a question about how the material acts. 2. The problem is an investigative question regarding the reaction of the materials to some outside force or manipulated variable. D. Create a hypothesis (20) [Page 1] 1. The hypothesis describes how the experimenter thinks the material will react to some outside force or manipulated variable. 2. The hypothesis is always written as an if-then statement. E. Design an experiment (100) [Page 2] 1. Identify the materials readily available to complete the experiment. 2. Write the procedures on how to perform your experiment. 3. These procedures must be clearly written. a. Capitalization, grammar, punctuation, and sentences. b. Reader understands your work without asking any questions. 4. The instructions must be specific. a. The instructions must be organized in the exact orders, in which, duties are to be performed. b. If you want someone to add ice to a container, you must tell them how much ice to add. c. Identifies the responding variable, dependent variable, and all of the constants.

2 Keeping A Scientific Journal F. Organizing the Data (80) [Page 3] 1. Create a data chart. a. Categorize the information on your chart so that the independent variable and dependent variable is recognizable. b. The levels or changes of the independent variable are recognizable. c. The change in the responding variable is recorded accurately. d. Record the average or mode of the data collected during the experiment. e. List all of the items or variables that stayed constant. H. Graphing the data (60) [Page 4] 1. Include a title 2. X and Y axes are labeled and contains the proper units. 3. Numbers on the X and Y axes are spaced equally apart or their intervals are equally spaced. 4. Use the correct graph to illustrate your data. I. Analyze your data (50) [Page 5] 1. Provide specific details that describe what happened in each trial. 2. Provide an accurate account of what happened in your experiment. J. Conclusion (50) [Page 5] 1. State whether or not your hypothesis was supported or rejected. 2. Explain why you made this statement. 3. Provide supporting detail to back up your information. 4. Provide examples to back up your supporting details. 5. When necessary, discuss the hidden variables in your experiments. Explain how the may have affected your experiment. 6. When necessary, discuss any scientific errors that you may have made. Explain how they may have affected your experiment.

3 The Pendulum [Puma Science Lab] [Mr. Buntyn] [Edythe J. Hayes Middle School] [8 th Grade]

4 The Pendulum [Page 1] Knowledge: Pendulums are used in old clocks, like the grandfather clock. They help us keep with time. We pendulums lose their energy they slow down and must be rewound. Knowledge: Pendulums are used in old clocks, like the grandfather clock. They help us keep with time. We pendulums lose their energy they slow down and must be rewound. Problem: Does the amount of washers or weight of a pendulum affect how many times it will swing in 30 seconds. Problem: Does the amount of washers or weight of a pendulum affect how many times it will swing in 30 seconds. Hypothesis: If I increase the mass of the pendulum, then it will swing fewer times in 30 seconds. Hypothesis: If I increase the mass of the pendulum, then it will swing fewer times in 30 seconds.

5 Design the Experiment [Page 2] Materials Materials.65 meter of string.65 meter of string 1 Paper clip 1 Paper clip 1 pencil 1 pencil 1 desk 1 desk 2 pieces of masking tape 2 pieces of masking tape 5 metal washers 5 metal washers 2 science books 2 science books

6 Design the Experiment [Page 2] Procedures Get your materials. Get your materials. Make sure that the paper clip is attached to the end of the string. Make sure that the paper clip is attached to the end of the string. Attach the metal washer to the paper clip. Attach the metal washer to the paper clip. Make sure there is a loop at the top of the pendulum and knot your loop. Make sure there is a loop at the top of the pendulum and knot your loop. Measure the length of the pendulum. It should be approximately 65 centimeters in total length. Record the length of the pendulum in the appropriate place on your chart. Measure the length of the pendulum. It should be approximately 65 centimeters in total length. Record the length of the pendulum in the appropriate place on your chart. Tape the pencil to the edge of the table at the center, with the eraser end of the pencil extending 6 centimeters from the edge of the table? Also tape the pencil at its base for extra support. If not the pencil may sway back and forth with the pendulum. Tape the pencil to the edge of the table at the center, with the eraser end of the pencil extending 6 centimeters from the edge of the table? Also tape the pencil at its base for extra support. If not the pencil may sway back and forth with the pendulum.

7 Design the Experiment [Page 2] Procedures (continued) Place the loop of the pendulum on the pencil. Make sure that the loop is only touching the wood of the pencil and not the metal or the eraser. Place the loop of the pendulum on the pencil. Make sure that the loop is only touching the wood of the pencil and not the metal or the eraser. Pull the pendulum towards you. Make sure that the release point is horizontal with the pencil. Make sure the tables are even or aligned properly with one another. Pull the pendulum towards you. Make sure that the release point is horizontal with the pencil. Make sure the tables are even or aligned properly with one another. On the release, the timer will begin the stop watch for 30 seconds. If the pendulum strikes the table, continue counting for the full 30 seconds without starting over. On the release, the timer will begin the stop watch for 30 seconds. If the pendulum strikes the table, continue counting for the full 30 seconds without starting over. The counter will count the number of swings. The back and forth movement of the swing is considered to be one swing. The counter will count the number of swings. The back and forth movement of the swing is considered to be one swing. The recorder will record the data in the chart. The recorder will record the data in the chart. Then, add another washer to the pendulum and repeat steps Then, add another washer to the pendulum and repeat steps Then, add a third washer to the pendulum and repeat steps Then, add a third washer to the pendulum and repeat steps Repeat the entire experiment 2 more times. Repeat the entire experiment 2 more times. When finished put all materials back in the bag the way that you found them. When finished put all materials back in the bag the way that you found them.

8 Organizing the Data [Page 3] The Pendulum Constants: Length of the string, type of pencil, same paper clip, science books, point of release, person releasing the pendulum, distance of the pendulum from the table. Number of Swings Number of Washers Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average One Three Five

9 Graphing the Data [Page 4]

10 Analysis of the Data [Page 5] In trial one, the pendulum swung more times as I increased the number of washers. In trial two, the number of swings decreased as I added more washers to the pendulum. In trial three, the number of swings increased by one swing, at each level, when I added more washers.

11 Conclusion(Part 1) Pg. 5 My conclusion was supported by my hypothesis. When I averaged the data presented in each level, the pendulum with the most weight swung more times in 30 seconds. Since there wasn’t much of a difference in the number of swings for each washer at each level, I would have to run more trials to be comfortable with my answer.

12 Conclusion [Page 5] Although I proved my hypothesis to be correct, the data does not convince me that my final answer to the problem is correct. I noticed that as I read the information across the chart, the information collected for the pendulum in all three trials fluctuated and did not stay the same.

13 Conclusion Pg.5 This means that something was happening in my experiment that I wasn’t aware of. I realized that several hidden variables may have affected my experiment. For example, the pendulum kept hitting the table. I noticed that if I added more weight to the string then the pendulum would be a little longer. In addition to making mistakes, I realized that we made at least one error during this experiment. My partner released the pendulum a few seconds after the time had begun.

14 Conclusion (Part 2) Other experimental questions might include the following: Does the length of the string affect how many times a pendulum swings in 30 seconds? Does the length of the string affect how many times a pendulum swings in 30 seconds? Does the height of a pendulum affect how many times a pendulum swings in 30 seconds? Does the height of a pendulum affect how many times a pendulum swings in 30 seconds? Does the angle or the release point of a pendulum affect how many times a pendulum swings in 30 seconds? Does the angle or the release point of a pendulum affect how many times a pendulum swings in 30 seconds?

15 Science Project Complete a Scientific Journal Write Up on the “Great Tomato Race” Complete a Scientific Journal Write Up on the “Great Tomato Race” Read the directions for “Keeping a Scientific Journal” Read the directions for “Keeping a Scientific Journal” Follow these Guidelines for writing up your experiments. Follow these Guidelines for writing up your experiments. This assignment will be due on September 3, This assignment will be due on September 3, 2007.


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