Presentation on theme: "4/22/2015 Science Fair Projects. 4/22/2015 Topic Select a topic that can be answered only by you experimenting Write your topic as a question to be investigated."— Presentation transcript:
4/22/2015 Topic Select a topic that can be answered only by you experimenting Write your topic as a question to be investigated 1
4/22/2015 Selecting a Topic Help in finding a topic: –READ in books, magazines, newspapers –Talk to your teacher, family, friends –Visit professional people, museums, zoos, Select a topic you know nothing about. Select a topic that you know something about but want to investigate further Select a topic that genuinely interests you. 2
4/22/2015 Good TopicBad Topic Do different colored mints dissolve at the same rate? What surfaces do mealworms prefer? Do all brands of paper towels absorb water at the same rate? 3 How volcanoes erupt. Microscopes do different brands of paper towels soak up different temperatures of water at the same rate?
4/22/2015 Purpose One to three sentences that explains why you are doing this investigation. The purpose can be stated like this: –“ The purpose of this project is … ” If your purpose is well worded, you will have little difficulty writing a title for your project. 4
4/22/2015 Hypothesis A hypothesis states what you think is going to happen when you investigate a question. –Question: Does light affect the way plants grow? Hypothesis 1: Plants will grow toward the light Hypothesis 2: Plants will grow away from the light. Hypothesis 3: Light will make no difference in the way plants will grow. –Choose one hypothesis you believe will work for your tests. 5
4/22/2015 Procedures Materials Variables Step by Step directions 6
4/22/2015 Materials Good ListingPoor Listing 3- 15x 15 cm sq each of: Brawney, Gala, Scott, Generic paper towels 250 ml graduated beaker 750 ml water at 20 0 C 1- 20x20 cm sq cake pan Celsius Thermometer Clock with second hand 7 Paper towels measuring cup water container thermometer clock
4/22/2015 Variables There are three types of variables Independent Variable (Manipulated)- –What you change on purpose in an investigation –The factor being tested Dependent Variable (Responding)- –What changes by itself because you changed something in your investigation –How you measure your results Control Variables- –Everything else in your investigation must be held constant –Kept the same.
4/22/2015 Examples of Variables Question: Do all brands of paper towels absorb the same amount of water? –Independent Variable: Brands of paper towels –Dependent Variable: Amount of water that is absorbed by each towel. –Variables held Constant: –Size of paper towel, –Amount of water poured on each towel –Temperature of the water used –Container towels are placed in –Method of pouring
4/22/2015 Step-by-Step Directions Your step-by-step directions are like a recipe. Anyone who reads them will be able to duplicate your investigation and get the same results. Example: Question: Do all brands of paper towels absorb the same amount of water? 1. Cut 3- 15x15 cm sq from each brand of paper towels
4/22/2015 2. Label each cut piece with brand name 3. Pour 50 ml of 20 o C water into 20x20 cm sq pan 4. Place 1 square of Generic brand paper towel into water and pan 5. Leave for 30 seconds 6. Remove paper towel 7. Measure water remaining in pan and record 8. Dry cake pan 9. Repeat steps 4- 8 for each brand of paper towel 10. Repeat entire process twice more for each brand of paper towels –note: minimum of 3 trials Step-by-Step Directions
4/22/2015 Data/ Logbook Data refers to information gathered during your investigation. Writing in a notebook is the most convenient way to keep a log.
4/22/2015 Data cont. 1. A list of all materials used 2. Notes on all preparations you made prior to starting your investigation 3. Information about the resources you use (books, people, libraries, museums, universities, on-line websites, etc.) 4. Detailed day-by-day notes on the progress of your project
4/22/2015 Data cont. What you are actually doing Problems you have with your investigation Things you would change if you were doing this investigation again 5. Any drawings that you feel might help explain your work 6. Data that you gather from your investigation (notes, tables, charts, graphs) Be sure that you date each entry in your log.
4/22/2015 Data/Log Book Data refers to information gathered during your investigation. List all materials used Notes on all preparations you made prior to starting your investigation Information about the resources you use (books, people, libraries,etc) Detailed day by day notes on the progress of your project Any drawings that you feel might explain your work Data that you gather from your investigation (notes, tables, charts, graphs) Be sure that you date each entry in your log
4/22/2015 Labeling B1B4B7 B2B5B8 B3B6B9 7/27/47/67/8 B11346 B22368 B32478 B43678 TOTAL 8162430 AVG2467.5 A1A4A7 A2A5A8 A3A6A9 7/27/47/67/8 A12457 A23589 A32345 A43455 TOTAL 10162226 AVG2.54.05.56.5 Control Group A Experimental Group B AVERAGING DATES PLANTS/WEIGHT (cm) PLANTS/HEIGHT (cm)
4/22/2015 Graphs There are two main types of graphs. BAR GRAPH A BAR GRAPH IS USED TO DISPLAY DATA THAT DOES NOT OCCUR IN A CONTINUOUS MANNER LINE GRAPH A LINE GRAPH IS USED TO DISPLAY DATA THAT OCCURS IN A CONTINUOUS MANNER
4/22/2015 MAKING A GRAPH TITLE Dependent variable Y (Vertical axis) Independent Variable X (Horizontal Axis) Title: the title is a short description of the data being displayed should include dependent and independent variables Horizontal Axis (x)- The Independent Variable (Manipulated Variable) what you changed on purpose is displayed on the horizontal axis Vertical Axis (y): The dependent variable ( Responding Variable) what happened as a result of what you changed is displayed on the vertical axis
4/22/2015 Graph/Spacing Plan your graph so that your data will be evenly distributed across the horizontal and vertical axes.
4/22/2015 Conclusions Your conclusions should include: –Statement of support or non-support of the original hypothesis The results of this project ________ the original hypothesis. –Description of any problems or unusual events that occurred during your investigation. –What would you do differently next time. –Revised hypothesis (if data did not support your original hypothesis)
4/22/2015 Writing a Conclusion Before you write your conclusions, carefully examine all your data (graphs, charts, tables). Ask yourself these questions: –Did you get the results you expected to get? If not, how were the results different? –Were there any unexpected problems or occurrences that may have affected the results of your investigation? –Do you think you collected sufficient data? (Were there enough trials? Samples?) –Do I need to revise my original hypothesis? (If you write a revised hypothesis, DO NOT use it to replace your original hypothesis for this project!)
4/22/2015 Conclusions Questions: Do all brands of paper towels absorb the same amount of water? Hypothesis: The cheaper the paper towel the less water it will absorb. Conclusion: The data collected does not support the original hypothesis. The cheapest paper towel (generic) did not absorb the least amount of water. The higher priced paper towel (Brawny) did not absorb the most. The revised hypothsis is the price of the paper towels does not affect the amount of water absorbed.