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NWTC Medical Terminology 10-501-101 1 Medical Terminology Chapter 12 Reproductive System.

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1 NWTC Medical Terminology Medical Terminology Chapter 12 Reproductive System

2 NWTCMedical Terminology Function The male and female reproductive systems include the gonads (ovaries and testes), where sex cells and hormones are produced, and other organs, ducts, and glands that transport and sustain the egg or sperm cell. The male and female reproductive systems include the gonads (ovaries and testes), where sex cells and hormones are produced, and other organs, ducts, and glands that transport and sustain the egg or sperm cell.

3 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Female reproductive system includes: Female reproductive system includes: –Ovaries produce Sex cells Sex cells Hormones Hormones –Uterine tubes –Uterus –Vagina –Accessory glands –External genital structure

4 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Combining word form genit(o) Combining word form genit(o) Organ of reproduction Organ of reproduction Another word form for genitals is Another word form for genitals is Genitalia Genitalia Uro/genit/al means Uro/genit/al means Pertaining to the urinary and reproductive system Pertaining to the urinary and reproductive system

5 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Combining word form means woman or female Combining word form means woman or female Gynec(o) Gynec(o) The medical specialty that treats disease of the female reproductive tract is: The medical specialty that treats disease of the female reproductive tract is: Gynecology Gynecology Gynecoloc/ic means pertain to gynecology or Gynecoloc/ic means pertain to gynecology or Study of diseases that occur only in female Study of diseases that occur only in female

6 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Internal structures Internal structures –Left ovary and associated left fallopian/uterine tube –Right ovary and associated right fallopian/uterine tube –Uterus –Vagina –Special glands

7 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Combining word form ovari(o) Combining word form ovari(o) Structure of the ovary Structure of the ovary Suffix –an means Suffix –an means Pertaining to Pertaining to Ovarian means Ovarian means Pertaining to the ovary Pertaining to the ovary Combining word form oophor(o) Combining word form oophor(o) Diagnostic and surgical terms Diagnostic and surgical terms

8 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Disease of the ovaries is Disease of the ovaries is oophoropathy oophoropathy Combining word form salping(o) means Combining word form salping(o) means Uterine tube Uterine tube Surgical removal of a uterine tube is Surgical removal of a uterine tube is Salpingectomy Salpingectomy Combining word forms uter(o) hyster(o) and metr(o) means Combining word forms uter(o) hyster(o) and metr(o) means Uterus Uterus

9 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Greeks use the word hysterikos to refer to Greeks use the word hysterikos to refer to Suffering in the womb Suffering in the womb Emotional upheaval caused by this suffering Emotional upheaval caused by this suffering Combining word forms vagin(o) and colp(o) means Combining word forms vagin(o) and colp(o) means Vagina Vagina Combining word form cysto(o) means Combining word form cysto(o) means Bladder Bladder

10 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology External structures External structures –Mons pubis –Labia majora –Labia minora –Clitoris –Prepuce –Opening to glands Paraurethral Paraurethral Vestibular Vestibular

11 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Combining word form vulv(o) means Combining word form vulv(o) means External genitalia in the female External genitalia in the female Vulv/ar or vulv/al pertains to the Vulv/ar or vulv/al pertains to the Vulva Vulva Vestibule is Vestibule is Any space or cavity at entrance to a canal Any space or cavity at entrance to a canal Combining word form perine(o) means Combining word form perine(o) means Perineum Perineum

12 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Combining word form cervix means Combining word form cervix means Neck Neck Colpo/cervic/al refers to Colpo/cervic/al refers to Vagina and cervix Vagina and cervix

13 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Combining word form metr(o) means Combining word form metr(o) means Uterus or to measure Uterus or to measure The uterus is composed of three layers of tissue The uterus is composed of three layers of tissue Perimetrium outer most layer Perimetrium outer most layer Myometrium middle layer Myometrium middle layer Endometrium means inner most layer Endometrium means inner most layer

14 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Prefix peri- means Prefix peri- means Around Around Combining word form my(o) means Combining word form my(o) means Muscle Muscle

15 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Monthly cycle of growth and discharge of endometrium is Monthly cycle of growth and discharge of endometrium is Menstrual cycle Menstrual cycle Hypothalamus and pituitary gland secrete hormones that act on the ovaries Hypothalamus and pituitary gland secrete hormones that act on the ovaries –Production of ova –Production of estrogen –Production of progesterone

16 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Cyclic bloody discharge from shedding of the endometrium Cyclic bloody discharge from shedding of the endometrium Menstruation Menstruation Female reproductive cycle begins at Female reproductive cycle begins at Puberty Puberty The first menstruation is the The first menstruation is the Menarche Menarche Natural cessation of reproductive cycle is Natural cessation of reproductive cycle is Menopause Menopause

17 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Secretion of female reproductive hormones follows monthly cyclic patterns that affect the ovaries and uterus Secretion of female reproductive hormones follows monthly cyclic patterns that affect the ovaries and uterus Ovarian cycle Ovarian cycle Menstrual (uterine) cycle Menstrual (uterine) cycle

18 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Ovarian phase Ovarian phase Follicular phase days 1-5/6-12 Follicular phase days 1-5/6-12 Growth of follicle Growth of follicle Secretion of estrogen Secretion of estrogen Ovulation is days Ovulation is days Ova released by the follicle Ova released by the follicle Luteal phase days Luteal phase days Follicle becomes corpus luteum Follicle becomes corpus luteum Secretes progesterone Secretes progesterone

19 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy and Physiology Uterine (menstrual) phase Uterine (menstrual) phase Menses days 1-5 Menses days 1-5 Blood is shed form the vagina Blood is shed form the vagina Proliferative phase days 6-12/13-14 Proliferative phase days 6-12/13-14 Growth of the endometruim Growth of the endometruim Proliferative phase continues Proliferative phase continues Secretory phase days Secretory phase days Continued growth of endometruim Continued growth of endometruim Secretion of glycogen Secretion of glycogen

20 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Tests & Procedures Physical assessment of female reproductive system includes Physical assessment of female reproductive system includes Breasts Breasts External genitalia External genitalia Pelvis Pelvis Instrument for examining vagina Instrument for examining vagina Vaginal speculum Vaginal speculum

21 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Tests & Procedures Cyto/logy is Cyto/logy is Study of cells Study of cells Cells of cervix examined to detect vaginal infections Cells of cervix examined to detect vaginal infections Yeast, Bacteria,Trichomonas Yeast, Bacteria,Trichomonas Pap smear for Pap smear for Cancer cells Cancer cells

22 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Tests & Procedures Suffix –plasia means development or formation Suffix –plasia means development or formation Prefix dys- means bad Prefix dys- means bad Dysplasia mean Dysplasia mean Abnormal (bad) development of cervical cells Abnormal (bad) development of cervical cells Colposcopy is using a colposcope to magnify the mucosa of the vagina and cervix Colposcopy is using a colposcope to magnify the mucosa of the vagina and cervix

23 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Tests & Procedures Cervical biopsy Cervical biopsy Endometrial biopsy Endometrial biopsy Hysteroscopy Hysteroscopy Direct visualization of cervical canal and uterine cavity Direct visualization of cervical canal and uterine cavity Excision of cervical polyps or biopsy Excision of cervical polyps or biopsy

24 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Tests & Procedures Detecting masses Detecting masses –Pelvis ultrasonography –Computed tomography (CT scan) Radiologic examination of uterus and fallopian tubes Radiologic examination of uterus and fallopian tubes Hystersalpingography Hystersalpingography Often done to look for obstruction of fallopian tube Often done to look for obstruction of fallopian tube

25 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Tests & Procedures Examination of abdominal cavity with a laparoscope Examination of abdominal cavity with a laparoscope Can be done to view pelvic cavity Can be done to view pelvic cavity Laparoscopy Laparoscopy

26 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Menorrhagia Menorrhagia Abnormally heavy or long menstrual period Abnormally heavy or long menstrual period Metorrhagia Metorrhagia Hemorrhage of the uterus Hemorrhage of the uterus

27 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Amenorrhea Amenorrhea Absence of menstruation Absence of menstruation Dysmenorrhea Dysmenorrhea Painful or difficult menstruation Painful or difficult menstruation Mittelschmerz Mittelschmerz Abdominal pain in the region of the ovary during ovulation Abdominal pain in the region of the ovary during ovulation

28 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Nervous tension, irritability, edema, headache, and painful breasts that can occur the last few days before the onset of menstruation Nervous tension, irritability, edema, headache, and painful breasts that can occur the last few days before the onset of menstruation

29 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Cervicitis Cervicitis Inflammation of the cervix Inflammation of the cervix Possible Causes Possible Causes –Chlamydia –Yeast (Candida ablicans) –Trichomonas vaginalis –Gonorrhea

30 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Vaginitis Vaginitis Inflammation of vaginal tissues Inflammation of vaginal tissues Possible causes Possible causes –Sexual intercourse –Following childbirth –After taking antibiotics Colpitis Colpitis

31 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Vulvitis Vulvitis Inflammation of vulva Inflammation of vulva Vulvovaginitis Vulvovaginitis Inflammation of vulva and vagina Inflammation of vulva and vagina

32 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Oophoritis Oophoritis Inflammation of an ovary Inflammation of an ovary Oophoralgia Oophoralgia Ovarian pain Ovarian pain Oophorosalpingitis Oophorosalpingitis Inflammation of an ovary and fallopian tube Inflammation of an ovary and fallopian tube

33 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Anovulation Anovulation Absence of ovulation Absence of ovulation Possible causes Possible causes –Altered ovarian function –Side effects of medications –Result of disease –Stress

34 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome –Anovulation –Amenorrhea –Infertility Caused by Caused by –Increased levels of testosterone, estrogen, and lutenizing hormone and decreased secretion of FSH

35 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Ovarian Cancer Ovarian Cancer Leading cause of death from reproductive cancers Leading cause of death from reproductive cancers Difficult to diagnose Difficult to diagnose Usually spread by the time it is found Usually spread by the time it is found Sonography or CT scan to look for ovarian mass Sonography or CT scan to look for ovarian mass Often requires exploratory surgery Often requires exploratory surgery

36 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Salpingocele Salpingocele Hernial protrusion of a fallopian tube Hernial protrusion of a fallopian tube Salpingitis Salpingitis Inflammation of a fallopian tube Inflammation of a fallopian tube Ectopic pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy Outside the uterine cavity Outside the uterine cavity Tubal pregnancy Tubal pregnancy Implanted in the fallopian tube Implanted in the fallopian tube

37 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Infection that involves the upper genital tract beyond the cervix Infection that involves the upper genital tract beyond the cervix Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) –Sudden high fever –Headache –Confusion –Acute renal failure –Abnormal liver function Caused by staphylococcus Caused by staphylococcus Most common among women who use tampons Most common among women who use tampons

38 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Uterine cancer Uterine cancer Stage I uterus only Stage I uterus only Stage II cervix also involved Stage II cervix also involved Stage III spread beyond uterus but still within pelvic cavity Stage III spread beyond uterus but still within pelvic cavity Stage IV spread beyond the pelvis most often spreading to liver and/or lungs Stage IV spread beyond the pelvis most often spreading to liver and/or lungs

39 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Hysteroptosis Hysteroptosis Uterine prolapse Uterine prolapse Uterine displacements Uterine displacements –Anteversion –Retroversion –Anteflexion –Retroflexion

40 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Uterine leiomyoma Uterine leiomyoma Uterine fibroid (benign tumor) Uterine fibroid (benign tumor) Cervical polyps Cervical polyps Myometritis Myometritis Inflammation of the myometrium Inflammation of the myometrium Endometritis Endometritis Inflammation of the endometrium Inflammation of the endometrium

41 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Endometriosis Endometriosis Abnormal condition in which endometrium tissue is outside the uterus, usually within the pelvic cavity Abnormal condition in which endometrium tissue is outside the uterus, usually within the pelvic cavity Vulvitis Vulvitis Inflammation of the vulva Inflammation of the vulva Leukorrhea Leukorrhea Normal white discharge before and after the menstrual period Normal white discharge before and after the menstrual period

42 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Colpodynia Colpodynia Pain of the vagina Pain of the vagina Cystocele Cystocele Protrusion of the bladder through the wall of the vagina Protrusion of the bladder through the wall of the vagina Rectocele Rectocele Rectum is displaced causing bulging of the posterior vaginal wall Rectum is displaced causing bulging of the posterior vaginal wall

43 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions An agent that prevents pregnancy An agent that prevents pregnancy Prefix contra- (against) Prefix contra- (against) Contraceptive Contraceptive Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) Combination of estrogen and progesterone Combination of estrogen and progesterone –Transition symptoms –High risk for osteoporosis, abnormal loss of bone density, and deterioration of bone tissue

44 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Treatments for infections of the vulva, vagina, or cervix Treatments for infections of the vulva, vagina, or cervix –Oral antibiotics –Topical antibiotics –Vaginal creams –Vaginal suppositories

45 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Suturing of the vagina is Suturing of the vagina is Colporrhaphy Colporrhaphy Surgical repair of the vagina is Surgical repair of the vagina is Colpoplasty Colpoplasty Surgical fixation of an ovary is Surgical fixation of an ovary is Oophoropexy Oophoropexy

46 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Oophoro/hyster/ectomy is Oophoro/hyster/ectomy is Removal of ovaries and uterus Removal of ovaries and uterus Oophorectomy is Oophorectomy is Removal of the ovaries Removal of the ovaries Oophorosalpingectomy is Oophorosalpingectomy is Removal of uterine tube and an ovary Removal of uterine tube and an ovary Salpingo-oophorectomy is Salpingo-oophorectomy is Removal of uterine tube and an ovary Removal of uterine tube and an ovary Hyster/ectomy Hyster/ectomy Removal of the uterus Removal of the uterus

47 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Hysterectomy with bilateral oophorosalpingectomy Hysterectomy with bilateral oophorosalpingectomy Removal of the uterus and both ovaries and both fallopian tubes Removal of the uterus and both ovaries and both fallopian tubes Colpo/hyster/ectomy is Colpo/hyster/ectomy is Removal of uterus by way of the vagina Removal of uterus by way of the vagina Laparo/hyster/ectomy is Laparo/hyster/ectomy is Removal of uterus through a small opening in the abdominal wall Removal of uterus through a small opening in the abdominal wall

48 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Excision of uterine tube is Excision of uterine tube is Salpingectomy Salpingectomy Tubal ligation Tubal ligation Permanent sterilization Permanent sterilization Dilation and curettage (D & C) Dilation and curettage (D & C) –Cervix dilated –Scraping of endometrium

49 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Suffix –therapy means Suffix –therapy means Treatment Treatment Treatment for dysplasia Treatment for dysplasia Biopsy Biopsy Cryo/therapy Cryo/therapy Cold treatment Cold treatment Cautery Cautery Irradiation Irradiation

50 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Surgical fixation of a displaced uterus Surgical fixation of a displaced uterus Hysteropexy Hysteropexy Surgical fixation of uterine tube is Surgical fixation of uterine tube is Salpingopexy Salpingopexy

51 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy & Physiology-Male Male reproductive system Male reproductive system Produces, sustains and transport sperm Produces, sustains and transport sperm Introduces sperm into female vagina Introduces sperm into female vagina Produces hormones Produces hormones Primary organ of male reproductive system is Primary organ of male reproductive system is Male gonads testes Male gonads testes

52 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy & Physiology-Male external genitalia external genitalia –scrotum –testicles –penis

53 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy & Physiology-Male internal genitalia internal genitalia –vas deferens –prostate gland –urethra

54 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy & Physiology-Male sperm sperm –singular spermatozoon spermatozoon –plural spermatozoa spermatozoa

55 NWTCMedical Terminology Anatomy & Physiology-Male urologist urologist medical doctor specializing in treating diseases and disorders of urinary system of females, genitourinary system of males medical doctor specializing in treating diseases and disorders of urinary system of females, genitourinary system of males

56 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathology Of Male Reproductive System balanitis - inflammation of glans penis balanitis - inflammation of glans penis impotence - erectile dysfunction - inability to achieve or maintain an erection impotence - erectile dysfunction - inability to achieve or maintain an erection phimosis - narrowing of foreskin phimosis - narrowing of foreskin

57 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathology Of Male Reproductive System anorchism - absence of one or both testicles anorchism - absence of one or both testicles cryptorchidism - undescended testicles-one testicle fails to descend into scrotum cryptorchidism - undescended testicles-one testicle fails to descend into scrotum epididymitis - inflammation of epididymitis epididymitis - inflammation of epididymitis

58 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathology continued hydrocele - hernia in the testicles or tubes hydrocele - hernia in the testicles or tubes testitis - inflammation of one or both testes testitis - inflammation of one or both testes varicocele - varicose vein of testicle (may cause male infertility) varicocele - varicose vein of testicle (may cause male infertility) azoospermia - absence of sperm in semen azoospermia - absence of sperm in semen

59 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathology continued oligospermia - low sperm count oligospermia - low sperm count benign prostatic hypertrophy - BPH - enlarged prostate benign prostatic hypertrophy - BPH - enlarged prostate prostate cancer - most common cancer in males - slow or fast growth prostate cancer - most common cancer in males - slow or fast growth

60 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathology continued prostatitis - inflammation of the prostate gland prostatitis - inflammation of the prostate gland prostatorrhea - discharge of prostatic fluid through urethra prostatorrhea - discharge of prostatic fluid through urethra prostatomegaly – enlarged prostate prostatomegaly – enlarged prostate

61 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Procedures Of Male Reproductive System PSA - prostatic specific antigen - blood screening test to check for cancer of prostate PSA - prostatic specific antigen - blood screening test to check for cancer of prostate sperm analysis - sperm count - semen is analyzed to determine sperm count, shape, size and motility sperm analysis - sperm count - semen is analyzed to determine sperm count, shape, size and motility TSE - testicular self-examination - monthly self exam to check for abnormalities TSE - testicular self-examination - monthly self exam to check for abnormalities

62 NWTCMedical Terminology Treatment Procedures Of Male Reproductive System circumcision - surgical removal of foreskin circumcision - surgical removal of foreskin orchidectomy - surgical removal of one or both testes orchidectomy - surgical removal of one or both testes varicocelectomy - removal of portion of enlarged vein to relieve varicocele varicocelectomy - removal of portion of enlarged vein to relieve varicocele

63 NWTCMedical Terminology Treatment Procedures Of Male Reproductive System castration - bilateral orchidectomy - surgical removal of both testicles castration - bilateral orchidectomy - surgical removal of both testicles sterilization - procedure to make individual incapable of reproduction sterilization - procedure to make individual incapable of reproduction

64 NWTCMedical Terminology Treatments continued vasectomy - portion of vas deferens is removed to prevent sperm in semen vasectomy - portion of vas deferens is removed to prevent sperm in semen vasovasostomy - procedure to restore fertility after vasectomy vasovasostomy - procedure to restore fertility after vasectomy

65 NWTCMedical Terminology Treatments continued prostatectomy - surgical removal of all or part of prostate gland prostatectomy - surgical removal of all or part of prostate gland radical prostatectomy - surgical removal of entire prostate gland, seminal vesicles and some surrounding tissue radical prostatectomy - surgical removal of entire prostate gland, seminal vesicles and some surrounding tissue

66 NWTCMedical Terminology Treatments continued TURP - transurethral resection of the prostate - removal of all or part of prostate through the urethra TURP - transurethral resection of the prostate - removal of all or part of prostate through the urethra radiation therapy - treatment to control prostate cancer radiation therapy - treatment to control prostate cancer hormone therapy - treatment to control prostate cancer hormone therapy - treatment to control prostate cancer

67 NWTC Medical Terminology Medical Terminology Chapter 13 Reproduction and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

68 NWTCMedical Terminology Reproduction Gonads Gonads –Ovaries –Testes Produce ova and sperm Produce ova and sperm A gamete is a reproductive cell A gamete is a reproductive cell –Ovum –Spermatozoon

69 NWTCMedical Terminology Reproduction Zygote Zygote The product of fertilization The product of fertilization Suffix –blast means Suffix –blast means Embryonic or early form Embryonic or early form Ooblast is Ooblast is Immature ovum Immature ovum

70 NWTCMedical Terminology Reproduction Combining word form for amni(o) means Combining word form for amni(o) means Amnion Amnion Pertaining to amnion is Pertaining to amnion is Amniotic Amniotic Combining word form chori(o) Combining word form chori(o) Chorion Chorion Pertaining to chorion is Pertaining to chorion is Chorionic Chorionic Amniochorionic pertaining to 2 membranes Amniochorionic pertaining to 2 membranes

71 NWTCMedical Terminology Reproduction Placenta Placenta Highly vascular structure that nourishes the fetus Highly vascular structure that nourishes the fetus Oxygen, nutrients, and antibodies diffuse from the mother to fetal blood vessels Oxygen, nutrients, and antibodies diffuse from the mother to fetal blood vessels Fetal wastes diffuse from the fetal blood into the maternal blood Fetal wastes diffuse from the fetal blood into the maternal blood Placenta secretes progesterone to maintain the uterus during pregnancy Placenta secretes progesterone to maintain the uterus during pregnancy

72 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth Prefix pre- means before Prefix pre- means before Combining word form nat(o) means birth Combining word form nat(o) means birth Another name for pregnancy is Another name for pregnancy is Prenatal period or gestation Prenatal period or gestation A term that means childbirth is A term that means childbirth is Parturition Parturition

73 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth Average period of gestation is 266 days from the date of fertilization. (38 weeks) Average period of gestation is 266 days from the date of fertilization. (38 weeks) Expected date of delivery 280 days from the first day of the last menstrual period. (40 weeks) Expected date of delivery 280 days from the first day of the last menstrual period. (40 weeks)

74 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth Suffix –gravida refers to Suffix –gravida refers to Pregnant female Pregnant female Prefix primi- means Prefix primi- means First First Primi/gravida is Primi/gravida is Female during first pregnancy Female during first pregnancy Gravida I Gravida I

75 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth Prefix multi- means many multi/gravida means Prefix multi- means many multi/gravida means Female pregnant more than once Female pregnant more than once Combining word form par(o) or suffix –para means Combining word form par(o) or suffix –para means Producing or bearing viable offspring Producing or bearing viable offspring Par/ous refers to Par/ous refers to Producing viable offspring Producing viable offspring

76 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth Para I means or primi/para is Para I means or primi/para is Female produced one viable offspring Female produced one viable offspring Prefix quadri- means Prefix quadri- means Four Four Prefix nulli- means Prefix nulli- means None None Nulli/para Nulli/para Produced no viable offspring Produced no viable offspring

77 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth Labor Labor Process by which the child is expelled from the uterus Process by which the child is expelled from the uterus Three stages of labor Three stages of labor –Cervical dilation –Expulsion –Placental and postpartum stage

78 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth 4 th stage – Postpartum 4 th stage – Postpartum Hour or two after delivery when uterine tone is established Hour or two after delivery when uterine tone is established Cesarean delivery Cesarean delivery Surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and the baby is removed from the uterus Surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and the baby is removed from the uterus

79 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth Postpartum – after birth Postpartum – after birth Prefix ante- means before Prefix ante- means before Ante/natal refers to Ante/natal refers to Time before birth Time before birth Prenatal also means the time before birth Prenatal also means the time before birth

80 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth Postnatal means Postnatal means Time after birth Time after birth Prefix neo- means new Prefix neo- means new Neo/natal refers to Neo/natal refers to First 28 days after birth First 28 days after birth Neonate is a Neonate is a Newborn child Newborn child

81 NWTCMedical Terminology Pregnancy and Childbirth Branch of medicine specializes in care of newborn is Branch of medicine specializes in care of newborn is Neonatology Neonatology Physician specializes in neonatology is Physician specializes in neonatology is Neonatologist Neonatologist

82 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Tests & Procedures Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Hormone that is tested for in pregnancy tests Hormone that is tested for in pregnancy tests Pelvimetry Pelvimetry Measurement of the pelvis used to estimate the size of the birth canal Measurement of the pelvis used to estimate the size of the birth canal Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) Baby’s head too large with birth canal too small Baby’s head too large with birth canal too small Most likely a cesarean will need to be done Most likely a cesarean will need to be done

83 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Tests & Procedures Sonography (Ultrasound) Sonography (Ultrasound) Used to assess for structural abnormalities and monitor fetal development Used to assess for structural abnormalities and monitor fetal development Amniocentesis Amniocentesis Used to aid in the assessment of fetal growth and diagnosis of genetic defects or other abnormalities Used to aid in the assessment of fetal growth and diagnosis of genetic defects or other abnormalities

84 NWTCMedical Terminology Diagnostic Tests & Procedures Chorionic villus sampling Chorionic villus sampling Used for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects Used for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects Fetoscope Fetoscope Stethoscope for assessing fetal heart rate Stethoscope for assessing fetal heart rate Electronic fetal monitor Electronic fetal monitor Used during labor to monitor the fetal heart and record the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions Used during labor to monitor the fetal heart and record the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions

85 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Ectopic or extrauterine pregnancy Ectopic or extrauterine pregnancy Whenever a fertilized ovum implants anywhere other than the uterus (outside the usual place) Whenever a fertilized ovum implants anywhere other than the uterus (outside the usual place) –Uterine tube –Ovary –Cervix –Abdominal cavity Products of fertilization are removed surgically Products of fertilization are removed surgically

86 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Suffix –cyesis means pregnancy Suffix –cyesis means pregnancy Prefix pseudo- means false Prefix pseudo- means false False pregnancy is False pregnancy is Pseudo/cyesis Pseudo/cyesis May be psychogenic or caused by a physical disorder May be psychogenic or caused by a physical disorder

87 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Preeclampsia Preeclampsia –Acute high blood pressure –Proteinuria (protein in the urine) –Edema Eclampsia Eclampsia –Seizures –Coma

88 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Abruptio pregnancy Abruptio pregnancy Separation of the placenta from the uterine wall after 20 weeks Separation of the placenta from the uterine wall after 20 weeks Placenta previa Placenta previa Placenta is implanted abnormally in the uterus Placenta is implanted abnormally in the uterus Stillbirth fetus died before or during delivery Stillbirth fetus died before or during delivery

89 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Dystocia Dystocia Abnormal or difficult labor Abnormal or difficult labor Down syndrome Down syndrome –Extra chromosome (#21) –Moderate to severe mental retardation –Additional genetic defects

90 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Hemolytic disease of the newborn Hemolytic disease of the newborn Maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility Maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility Erythroblastosis fetalis Erythroblastosis fetalis Immature bed blood cell Immature bed blood cell Baby born anemic Baby born anemic

91 NWTCMedical Terminology Pathologies Fetal presentation entering birth canal Fetal presentation entering birth canal Cephalic (normal) head Cephalic (normal) head Breech buttocks Breech buttocks Shoulder Shoulder

92 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Amniotomy Amniotomy Deliberate rupture of the fetal membranes Deliberate rupture of the fetal membranes Oxytocin Oxytocin Used as a drug to induce or augment uterine contractions Used as a drug to induce or augment uterine contractions Episiotomy Episiotomy Surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the female perineum to enlarge her vaginal opening for delivery Surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the female perineum to enlarge her vaginal opening for delivery

93 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Combining word form lapar(o) means Combining word form lapar(o) means Abdominal wall Abdominal wall Incision of the abdominal wall is Incision of the abdominal wall is Laparo/tomy Laparo/tomy Suturing of the abdominal wall is Suturing of the abdominal wall is Laparorrhaphy Laparorrhaphy

94 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Contraception Contraception Against conception Against conception Birth control Birth control –Oral –Implants –Patches –Injectable Intrauterine device (IUD) Intrauterine device (IUD)

95 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Spermicide Spermicide Chemical substance that kills sperm Chemical substance that kills sperm Permanent sterilization of a female is Permanent sterilization of a female is Tubal ligation Tubal ligation Permanent sterilization of a male is Permanent sterilization of a male is Vas/ectomy Vas/ectomy vasovasostomy - procedure to restore fertility after vasectomy vasovasostomy - procedure to restore fertility after vasectomy

96 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) Hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) Conception is not possible after surgery Conception is not possible after surgery Infertility Infertility Condition of not being able to produce offspring Condition of not being able to produce offspring In vitro fertilization (IVF) In vitro fertilization (IVF) Fertilization of the ova takes place outside of the body Fertilization of the ova takes place outside of the body

97 NWTCMedical Terminology Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions Abortion Abortion Termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus Termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus Spontaneous – miscarriage Spontaneous – miscarriage Deliberate Deliberate

98 NWTCMedical Terminology Sexually Transmitted Diseases Caused by infectious organisms passed form one person to another through Caused by infectious organisms passed form one person to another through Anal Anal Oral Oral Vaginal intercourse Vaginal intercourse

99 NWTCMedical Terminology Sexually Transmitted Diseases Venereal disease (STD’s) named for Venereal disease (STD’s) named for Venus goddess of love Venus goddess of love Causes of STD’s are Causes of STD’s are –Viruses –Bacteria –Protozoa –Fungi –Parasites

100 NWTCMedical Terminology Sexually Transmitted Diseases Gonorrhea Gonorrhea Caused by gonococcus bacteria (gram negative intracellular diplococci Caused by gonococcus bacteria (gram negative intracellular diplococci Heavy urethral discharge in males Heavy urethral discharge in males Females may be asymptomatic Females may be asymptomatic Treated with penicillin Treated with penicillin

101 NWTCMedical Terminology Sexually Transmitted Diseases Syphilis caused by a spirochete Syphilis caused by a spirochete Characterized by Characterized by Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Chancre Chancre Congenital syphilis Congenital syphilis

102 NWTCMedical Terminology Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chlamydia infection Chlamydia infection symptom is symptom is Dys/uria Dys/uria Difficult (painful urination) Difficult (painful urination) Complication PID Complication PID Herpes genitals Herpes genitals Viral infection characteristic Viral infection characteristic Genital blisters and ulceration Genital blisters and ulceration

103 NWTCMedical Terminology Sexually Transmitted Diseases Genital herpes during pregnancy can cause Genital herpes during pregnancy can cause Spontaneous abortion Spontaneous abortion Stillbirth Stillbirth Congenital birth defects Congenital birth defects Prevented by cesarean section Prevented by cesarean section

104 NWTCMedical Terminology Sexually Transmitted Diseases Condyloma acuminatum is commonly called Condyloma acuminatum is commonly called Genital warts Genital warts At risk for cervical cancer At risk for cervical cancer HIV virus causes HIV virus causes AIDS AIDS Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C

105 NWTCMedical Terminology Sexually Transmitted Diseases Trichomoniasis is caused by a Trichomoniasis is caused by a Protozoan Protozoan Candidiasis is an Candidiasis is an Fungal infection Fungal infection Vulvovaginitis Vulvovaginitis Inflammation of the vulva and vagina Inflammation of the vulva and vagina Pubic lice Pubic lice

106 NWTC Medical Terminology Chapter 12 and 13 Class Exercises

107 NWTCMedical Terminology Meaning of Word Parts Ante- Ante- before before colp(o) colp(o) vagina vagina metr(o) metr(o) uterine tissue or measure uterine tissue or measure cervic(o) cervic(o) cervix, uteri or neck cervix, uteri or neck -cyesis -cyesis pregnancy pregnancy

108 NWTCMedical Terminology Meaning of Word Parts Pre- Pre- before before ecto ecto situated outside situated outside -para -para female who has given birth female who has given birth hyster(o) hyster(o) uterus uterus extra- extra- outside outside

109 NWTCMedical Terminology Meaning of Word Parts Lapar(o) Lapar(o) abdominal wall abdominal wall orchid(o) orchid(o) testes testes genit(o) genit(o) organs of reproduction organs of reproduction men(o) men(o) month month gon(o) gon(o) genitals or reproduction genitals or reproduction

110 NWTCMedical Terminology Meaning of Word Parts Multi- Multi- many many primi- primi- first first neo neo new new post post after or behind after or behind nulli- nulli- none none

111 NWTCMedical Terminology What is the Combining Form? Sperm Sperm spermat(o) spermat(o) egg egg o(o) o(o) ovary ovary oophor(o) oophor(o) hidden hidden crypt(o) crypt(o)

112 NWTCMedical Terminology What is the Combining Form? birth birth nat(o) nat(o) chorion chorion chori(o) chori(o) uterine tube uterine tube salping(o) salping(o)

113 NWTCMedical Terminology Male - Female - Both Laparohysteropexy Laparohysteropexy female female anorchism anorchism male male endometrium endometrium female female epididymitis epididymitis male male hysterosalpingogram hysterosalpingogram female female

114 NWTCMedical Terminology Male - Female - Both Metrorrhagia Metrorrhagia female female vas deferens vas deferens male male uterine leiomyoma uterine leiomyoma female female toxic shock syndrome toxic shock syndrome female female orchidectomy orchidectomy male male

115 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it mean? Formation of an opening into a uterine tube Formation of an opening into a uterine tube salpingostomy salpingostomy outside of the uterus outside of the uterus extrauterine extrauterine occurring after birth occurring after birth postnatal postnatal surgical fixation of an ovary surgical fixation of an ovary oophoropexy oophoropexy

116 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it mean? Inflammation of the prostate Inflammation of the prostate prostatitis prostatitis pertaining to the testes pertaining to the testes testicular testicular inflammation of the uterine lining inflammation of the uterine lining endometritis endometritis uterine prolapse uterine prolapse hystoptosis hystoptosis suture of the ductus deferens suture of the ductus deferens vasorrhaphy vasorrhaphy

117 NWTCMedical Terminology Spelling Prostratitis Prostratitis prostatitis prostatitis menorhagia menorhagia menorrhagia menorrhagia vulvektomy vulvektomy vulvectomy vulvectomy histerctomy histerctomy hysterectomy hysterectomy varicosele varicosele varicocele varicocele

118 NWTCMedical Terminology Spelling Epididimitis Epididimitis epididymitis epididymitis laporoscopy laporoscopy laparoscopy laparoscopy trichamoniasis trichamoniasis trichomoniasis trichomoniasis urojenital urojenital urogenital urogenital

119 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it Mean? Ovary Ovary female gland female gland Amniocentesis Amniocentesis surgical puncture of the thin membrane that covers the fetus surgical puncture of the thin membrane that covers the fetus Myometritis Myometritis inflammation of the muscular substance/layer of the uterus inflammation of the muscular substance/layer of the uterus

120 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it Mean? Fetus Fetus 3 month old developing organism 3 month old developing organism Circumcision Circumcision surgical removal of the prepuce surgical removal of the prepuce Prostatectomy Prostatectomy excision of all or part of the prostate gland excision of all or part of the prostate gland Aspermatogenesis Aspermatogenesis absence of sperm production absence of sperm production

121 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it Mean? Cryptorchidism or cryptorchism Cryptorchidism or cryptorchism undescended testicle undescended testicle Anorchism Anorchism congenital absence of testes unilateral or bilateral, a synonym for anorchidism congenital absence of testes unilateral or bilateral, a synonym for anorchidism Dilatation and Curettage Dilatation and Curettage dilatation of the cervical opening and scraping of the uterine wall dilatation of the cervical opening and scraping of the uterine wall

122 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it Mean? Laparoscopy Laparoscopy examination of the interior of the abdomen with laparoscope, another term for pelvic peritoneoscopy examination of the interior of the abdomen with laparoscope, another term for pelvic peritoneoscopy Oophoropathy Oophoropathy any disease of the ovary any disease of the ovary Salpingectomy Salpingectomy excision of an uterine tube excision of an uterine tube Hysteropexy Hysteropexy surgical fixation of the uterus surgical fixation of the uterus

123 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it Mean? Oophoroma Oophoroma ovarian tumor ovarian tumor Salpingoplasty Salpingoplasty surgical repair of an uterine tube surgical repair of an uterine tube Hysteromalacia Hysteromalacia abnormal softening of the uterus abnormal softening of the uterus Colpoplasty Colpoplasty surgical repair of the vagina surgical repair of the vagina Orchiepididymitis Orchiepididymitis inflammation of testicle and epididymis inflammation of testicle and epididymis

124 NWTCMedical Terminology What is the Combining Form? Uterine tube Uterine tube salping(o) salping(o) Chorion Chorion chori(o) chori(o) Birth Birth nat(o) nat(o) Hidden Hidden crypt(o) crypt(o)

125 NWTCMedical Terminology What is the Combining Form? Semen Semen semin(o) semin(o) Ovary Ovary oophor(o) oophor(o) Egg Egg o(o) o(o) Sperm Sperm spermat(o) spermat(o)

126 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it mean? Ante- Ante- before before Extra- Extra- outside outside Hyster(o) Hyster(o) uterus uterus -para -para female who has given birth female who has given birth

127 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it mean? Ecto- Ecto- situated outside situated outside Pre- Pre- before before -cyesis -cyesis pregnancy pregnancy Cervic(o) Cervic(o) cervix, uteri, or neck cervix, uteri, or neck

128 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it mean? Metr(o) Metr(o) uterine tissue or measure uterine tissue or measure Colp(o) Colp(o) vagina vagina Laparohysterectomy Laparohysterectomy removal of the uterus removal of the uterus Laparotomy Laparotomy incision of the abdominal wall incision of the abdominal wall

129 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it mean? Abortion Abortion termination of pregnancy before fetus is capable of survival outside the uterus termination of pregnancy before fetus is capable of survival outside the uterus Human chorionic gonadotropin Human chorionic gonadotropin a hormone that is present in body fluids of pregnant females and forms the basis of most pregnancy tests a hormone that is present in body fluids of pregnant females and forms the basis of most pregnancy tests

130 NWTCMedical Terminology What does it mean? Neonatologist Neonatologist a physician who specializes in conditions of newborns a physician who specializes in conditions of newborns Postnatal Postnatal the time after birth the time after birth Ectopic Ectopic outside the usual place outside the usual place Salpingocyesis Salpingocyesis tubal pregnancy tubal pregnancy


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