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The Reproductive System. Reproduction is accomplished when the egg cell (female gamete) is fertilized by the sperm cell (male gamete)

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Presentation on theme: "The Reproductive System. Reproduction is accomplished when the egg cell (female gamete) is fertilized by the sperm cell (male gamete)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reproductive System

2 Reproduction is accomplished when the egg cell (female gamete) is fertilized by the sperm cell (male gamete)

3 Female Combining Forms FORMMEANINGEXAMPLE Cervic/o Neck, cervixCervicitis inflammation of cervix Colp/o vagin/o vagina Colporrhaphy suture of vagina Vaginitis inflammation of vagina

4 Episi/o vulva episiotomy Vulv/o vulvectomy Gynec/o woman gynecologist female gynecology Hyster/o uterus hysterectomy Metr/o Uter/o uteral (pertaining to the uterus) Lapar/o abdomen laparoscopy

5 Mamm/o mammogram Mast/o breast mastodynia Men/o menses menstruation menorrhea (flow of menses) ************************************************************ ************************************************************ Oophor/o oophoritis Ovari/o ovary ovariocele (hernia of ovary) ************************************************************ Salping/o fallopian tube salpingoscopy eustachian tube (ear)

6 The female reproductive system is composed of internal and external organs of reproduction.

7 Internal Organs OVARIES - paired - function is to produce hormones for ovulation and pregnancy. These are estrogen and progesterone. - store egg cells (oocytes) - mature the stored eggs until ovulation.

8 FALLOPIAN TUBES - the connection between the ovary and the uterus. - also called OVIDUCTS. - have FIMBRAE to coax the ovulated egg into the tube. - once inside the tube, the egg travels toward the uterus. When sperm is available, fertilization usually occurs in the oviduct.

9 UTERUS - a muscular, pear-shaped, hollow organ. - located between the bladder and the rectum. - function is to nourish and protect the growing fetus until birth.

10 VAGINA - is a muscular tube that extends from the cervix (neck of the uterus) to the exterior of the body. - functions: sexual intercourse, receptor of semen, discharge of menses, and passage for delivery of fetus.

11 Colpoptosis is a prolapse or dropping of the vagina. This is usually treated by suturing the vagina to the abdominal wall in a procedure known as a colporrhaphy.

12 Many women who have had a vaginal childbirth suffer from herniation of the bladder. This condition is known as a colp/o/cyst/o/cele vagina bladder herniation

13 The vagina is lined by mucus. This mucus is a lubricant. The combining form for mucus is MUC/O The suffix ending –OUS is an adjective that means pertaining to mucus. The suffix ending –OID is an adjective that means resembling.

14 Female External Organs The external organs are collectively known as GENITALIA. This is for both sexes.

15 LABIA MAJORA (the larger outer lips of the vagina) LABIA MINORA ( smaller inner lips of the vagina) CLITORIS ( contains many nerve endings. Similar to the penis in males) BARTHOLIN’S GLANDS (for lubrication)

16 The CERVIX is a term denoting the neck of the uterus and the extension of it into the top portion of the vagina. The combining form cervic/o refers to this part.

17 The word GRAVIDA is used to describe a woman that is pregnant. There is also a suffix, -gravida. Gravida may be followed by a number to denote the number of pregnancies. A gravida 4 woman is in her 4 th pregnancy.

18 The term PARA refers to a woman who has given birth to an infant, regardless of whether or not the baby was alive at birth. It is also followed by numbers to indicated the number of deliveries. A para 2 woman gave birth twice.

19 Hysterotomy 1.What is it? - incision of the uterus 2. When would you use it? - performing a cesarian section 3. What instrument would you use? - hysterotome

20 The Male Reproductive System The organs of the male reproductive system consist of the testes and a number of ducts (tubes), and glands. In the man, the reproductive role is to produce viable sperm, and to deliver the sperm to the female reproductive system.

21 The SPERM are cells that have a tail, head, and neck. The sperm are produced in the TESTICLES. The testes produce sperm throughout the life of the male. (Unlike the female, who are born with all the eggs they will ever have.)

22 The reproductive glands in the male serve to produce fluids that are added to the sperm to form SEMEN. These secretions are vital for keeping the sperm cells alive and motile (able to move).

23 The glands of the male reproductive system: 1. seminal vessicles 2. prostate gland 3. bulbourethral glands

24 Balan/o glans penis (the bulbous tip) balanoplasty (surgical repair) ************************************************************* Orch/o testes orchitis Orchi/o orchiopexy (sx. Fixation) Orchid/o orchidectomy Test/o testicle ************************************************************ Prostat/o prostate gland prostatodynia ************************************************************ Spermat/o sperm spermatolysis (destruction) ************************************************************ Vas/o vas deferens, vessel vasectomy

25 The testes (singular, testis), also called testicles are paired oval glands that descend into the SCROTUM. At the onset of puberty, the testes produce TESTOSTERONE. This is the male sex hormone.

26 Testosterone stimulates and promotes the growth of the secondary sex characteristics in the man.

27 SPERMATOGENESIS sperm Producing or forming This word means to make or produce sperm. Spermatogenesis occurs in the testes.

28 On the top of the testicle is a comma- shaped organ called the EPIDIDYMIS. This structure stores and propels the sperm toward the urethra during ejaculation. From the epididymis, sperm enters the vas deferens (ductus deferens). This structure transports sperm to the urethra.

29 During its trip toward the outside world, sperm picks up fluids from the glands. When the sperm and fluid join together, it is then called SEMEN.

30 COWPER’S GLANDS add a thick mucus to the semen that acts as a lubricant during sexual excitement.

31 The PENIS is the male sex organ that transports the semen into the vagina. A slightly enlarged region at the tip of the penis is called the GLANS. The glans of the penis is covered by a fold of skin called the PREPUCE or FORESKIN.

32 Additional Pathologies CANDIASIS - vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. This is characterized by a curdy or cheesy discharge with extreme itching (purititis)

33 CHLAMYDIA - infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacteria. This is among the most common STD. In women it presents with a mucopurulent cervicitis. In men, it presents with a whitish discharge from the penis.

34 ENDOMETRIOSIS - endometrial tissue (found normally in the wall of the uterus) is found in various abnormal sites throughout the pelvis or abdominal wall.

35 FIBROIDS - benign uterine tumors GONORRHEA - STD of inflammation of the mucous membranes. LEUKORRHEA - white or yellow mucus discharge from the cervical canal or vagina.

36 OLIGOMENORRHEA - scanty menses PYOSALPINX - pus in the fallopian tubes RETROVERSION - a turning of the uterus

37 ANORCHISM - congenital absence of one or both testes. BALANITIS - inflammation of the foreskin. CRYPTORCHIDISM - failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum. IMPOTENCE - inability of a man to attain or maintain an erection. Erection is caused by an increase of blood flow to the erectile tissue of the penis. This is mediated by a nervous system response to stimuli.

38 Vasectomy - surgery where surgeon cuts the vas deferens (tube connecting the testis to the urethra). This blocks mature sperm from being able to leave the penis. Ligation-to cut


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