Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology Junior Health"— Presentation transcript:
1Anatomy and Physiology Junior Health Reproductive SystemAnatomy and PhysiologyJunior Health
2Role of Reproductive System 1. Produce, store, nourish and transport male and female reproductive cells2. Successfully allow meeting of sperm with ovum to produce zygoteZygote=the cell that results from fertilization. It is the union of a spermatozoon and an ovum.Gamete=A single mature egg or sperm capable of reproduction to form a zygote. Each gamete contains a single (haploid) chromosome: the double (diploid) chromosome of the resulting zygote contains the genetic information programming the growth of the new individual.
3Reproductive System components Primary Sex organsMales = testesFemales = ovariesReproductive TractDucts that receive, store and transport gametesAccessory glands and organsPerinea structures (external genitalia)
4Female Reproductive System The role of the female is not only to produce the gametes or egg cells, but her body must prepare to nurture the developing embryo.The female internal genitalia is housed in the pelvic cavity, which is part of this protection system for these organs
5Principle organs of the female reproductive system OvariesFallopian TubesUterusEndometriumVaginaCervix
6OvariesThe female sex glands that house the ova and produce the female sex hormones2 OvariesAlmond shaped and located on each side of the body in the lower abdomenAt birth, a female has over 400,000 immature ovaThe ovaries begin the process of releasing one ova per month, this is called ovulation
7Fallopian TubesTwo muscular tubes through which the egg cell moves from the ovary to the uterus.Very often the space where fertilization occurs.Each is about four inches longThe tubes do not actually touch the ovaries, they kind of hover and often a egg cell is lost into the peritoneal cavity, what the tubes must do is catch the egg cell within the tube.
8The uterusA small muscular, pear shaped organ about the size of a fist.Prepares each month to receive a fertilized eggHouses the fetus during pregnancyPushes out baby during childbirthMechanical protectionNutritional supportWaste removal for the developing embryo and fetus
9Cervix The lower portion of the uterus Common site of cancer in femalesMuscular junction that opens (dilates) during birthCervical cancer strikes about 450,000 women each year, killing about half. the first part of the long and hazardous route which sperm must navigate to reach an ovum, but which, at fertile times, assists them by sperm-friendly modification of the secretions from its lining. In the event of pregnancy, the cervix remains a narrow channel until the final weeks: then the muscle of the wall thins out, allowing descent of the infant's head into the pelvis. During the first stage of labor the opening into the vagina enlarges; when it is ‘fully dilated’ the second stage begins, heralding descent of the fetus into the vagina. The cervix is one of the common sites for cancer, hence the advisability of regular cervical smears.
10VaginaMuscular elastic tube, approximately 3-4 inches long that extends from the uterus to outside of the body.Serves as a passageway for male sperm, menstrual flow, and commonly called the birth canal.
13External genitalia Vulva external female sex organ Mons Pubis Soft tissue that covers the pubic bone and protects the internal genitaliaLabia minora and majoraThe outer and inner folds that surround the opening of the vaginaClitorisa small, highly sensitive organ located between the inner folds of the labia minoraBreastsorgans composed of fatty tissue that are sensitive and provide milk for anewborn babyParaurethral glandsClitorisThe outer and inner folds that surround the opening of the vaginaLesser and greater vestibular glands
16Hormones of the female reproductive cycle Control the reproductive cycleCoordinate the ovarian and uterine cyclesEstrogenMaintains the secondary sex characters and organs, such as mammary glands, uterus, vagina, and fallopian tubesProgesteroneexcreted by the ovary and placenta, acts to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum, to maintain pregnancy, and to promote development of the mammary glands.
17Female Physiology Ovulation The release of a mature egg cell (ovum) from the ovary the usually occurs once a month.MenstruationThe process by which the uterus sheds its inner liningFertilizationThe union of an egg and a sperm cell.PregnancyThe process by which the zygote grows and develops in the mother’s uterus and forms a new individualChildbirthThe delivery of the baby from the mother’s uterusThe two ovaries typically alternate release of the egg.Menstruation- the lining of the uterus thickens in preparation fro the possibility of a fertilized egg, if not fertilized the linng breaks down and eventually blood and tissue leave the body, cycle occurs approximately every 28 daysFertilization-it is also called conception
19External Reproductive Organs Testes2 small glands that produce sperm at the rate of 100 million per dayScrotumA sac that holds the testes and regulates temperature, which protects sperm by keeping the testes at a body temperature slightly below normal 98.6PenisComposed of spongy tissue that contains many blood vessels. Increased blood flow to the penis causes it to become erect, and ejaculation of semen occur through the urethra
20Internal Reproductive Organs EpididymusElongated tube located at the outer surface of the testes, monitors and adjusts seminal fluid, stores and protects sperm,Vas DeferensPair of connecting tubes that lead up the body towards the other internal ductsEjaculatory ductjoins with the seminal vesicle and distributes sperm into the Prostate GlandUrethraPassageway through which both semen and urine leave the body.Ejaculation of sperm comes from the epididymusSemen and urine do not pass through at the same time.
21Male Reproductive Tract Pathway of spermProduced in the testesStored in the EpididymisTravels through the Vas DeferensCombines with fluid from the Seminal VesiclesCombines with fluid from the Prostate glandCombines with fluid from the Cowper’s glandNow called semen, travels through urethra in the penisLeaves the body through the opening in the penis during ejaculation
22SemenFluid containing sperm and other secretions from the reproductive organsTypical ejaculation: 2-5ml of semenContains:SpermatozoaSeminal FluidEnzymes
23Accessory Glands Contribute close to 95% of total semen volume Glands include:Seminal VesiclesProstate glandCowper’s glandMajor Functions:Activate spermatozoaProvide nutrients for spermatozoa mobilityProtect from urethra and vaginal contents
24Accessory Glands Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s Gland Is a gland that helps enhance sperms motility or fertilizing powerProstate glandSize of a peach pit which surrounds the urethra, it activates sperm as it travels through the ejaculatory duct into the urethra, it is then mixed with fluids from this glandCowper’s GlandSperm mixes with thick mucus excretions which now forms semen, and it aids in sterilization of urethraCowpers gland is the size of a pea, the excretions neutralize acids that may have been left in the urethra from urine,
26Hormones Testosterone The male sex hormone, which is released by the pituitary gland, is also responsible for the production of sperm)
27Problems with the Male Reproduction System HerniaIntestines rupture through a weak spot in the abdominal wall and push into the scrotumEnlarged ProstateOccurring as a result of tumor, infection, or old ageCancer of the prostate glandUncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate glandProstate Cancer often occurs in older menTesticular cancer occurs most often in males between the ages of 15 and 34
28Problems with the Male Reproduction System Testicular CancerUncontrolled growth of cells in testesAndropauseDecrease in male sexual function due to diminished testosterone levelsSterilityInability to reproduce due to poor quality of sperm or too few
29Causes of Male Sterility Extreme temperature changesLow sperm productionExposure to certain chemicalsContracting mumps as an adultSmokingSTD’sMalformation of the Epididymus, vas deferens, Cowper’s and prostate glands