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Anatomy and Physiology Junior Health.  1. Produce, store, nourish and transport male and female reproductive cells  2. Successfully allow meeting of.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology Junior Health.  1. Produce, store, nourish and transport male and female reproductive cells  2. Successfully allow meeting of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology Junior Health

2  1. Produce, store, nourish and transport male and female reproductive cells  2. Successfully allow meeting of sperm with ovum to produce zygote

3  Primary Sex organs ◦ Males = testes ◦ Females = ovaries  Reproductive Tract ◦ Ducts that receive, store and transport gametes  Accessory glands and organs  Perinea structures (external genitalia)


5  Ovaries  Fallopian Tubes  Uterus  Endometrium  Vagina  Cervix

6  The female sex glands that house the ova and produce the female sex hormones  2 Ovaries ◦ Almond shaped and located on each side of the body in the lower abdomen  At birth, a female has over 400,000 immature ova  The ovaries begin the process of releasing one ova per month, this is called ovulation

7  Two muscular tubes through which the egg cell moves from the ovary to the uterus.  Very often the space where fertilization occurs.  Each is about four inches long

8  A small muscular, pear shaped organ about the size of a fist.  Prepares each month to receive a fertilized egg  Houses the fetus during pregnancy  Pushes out baby during childbirth ◦ Mechanical protection ◦ Nutritional support ◦ Waste removal for the developing embryo and fetus

9  The lower portion of the uterus  Common site of cancer in females  Muscular junction that opens (dilates) during birth

10  Muscular elastic tube, approximately 3-4 inches long that extends from the uterus to outside of the body.  Serves as a passageway for male sperm, menstrual flow, and commonly called the birth canal.



13  Vulva ◦ external female sex organ  Mons Pubis ◦ Soft tissue that covers the pubic bone and protects the internal genitalia  Labia minora and majora ◦ The outer and inner folds that surround the opening of the vagina  Clitoris ◦ a small, highly sensitive organ located between the inner folds of the labia minora  Breasts ◦ organs composed of fatty tissue that are sensitive and provide milk for a newborn baby

14 Figure 28.22


16  Control the reproductive cycle  Coordinate the ovarian and uterine cycles  Estrogen ◦ Maintains the secondary sex characters and organs, such as mammary glands, uterus, vagina, and fallopian tubes  Progesterone ◦ excreted by the ovary and placenta, acts to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum, to maintain pregnancy, and to promote development of the mammary glands.

17  Ovulation ◦ The release of a mature egg cell (ovum) from the ovary the usually occurs once a month.  Menstruation ◦ The process by which the uterus sheds its inner lining  Fertilization ◦ The union of an egg and a sperm cell.  Pregnancy ◦ The process by which the zygote grows and develops in the mother’s uterus and forms a new individual  Childbirth ◦ The delivery of the baby from the mother’s uterus


19  Testes ◦ 2 small glands that produce sperm at the rate of 100 million per day  Scrotum ◦ A sac that holds the testes and regulates temperature, which protects sperm by keeping the testes at a body temperature slightly below normal 98.6  Penis  Composed of spongy tissue that contains many blood vessels. Increased blood flow to the penis causes it to become erect, and ejaculation of semen occur through the urethra

20  Epididymus ◦ Elongated tube located at the outer surface of the testes, monitors and adjusts seminal fluid, stores and protects sperm,  Vas Deferens ◦ Pair of connecting tubes that lead up the body towards the other internal ducts  Ejaculatory duct ◦ joins with the seminal vesicle and distributes sperm into the Prostate Gland  Urethra ◦ Passageway through which both semen and urine leave the body.

21  Pathway of sperm ◦ Produced in the testes ◦ Stored in the Epididymis ◦ Travels through the Vas Deferens ◦ Combines with fluid from the Seminal Vesicles ◦ Combines with fluid from the Prostate gland ◦ Combines with fluid from the Cowper’s gland ◦ Now called semen, travels through urethra in the penis ◦ Leaves the body through the opening in the penis during ejaculation

22  Fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the reproductive organs  Typical ejaculation: 2-5ml of semen  Contains:  Spermatozoa  Seminal Fluid  Enzymes

23  Contribute close to 95% of total semen volume  Glands include: ◦ Seminal Vesicles ◦ Prostate gland ◦ Cowper’s gland  Major Functions: ◦ Activate spermatozoa ◦ Provide nutrients for spermatozoa mobility ◦ Protect from urethra and vaginal contents

24  Seminal Vesicle ◦ Is a gland that helps enhance sperms motility or fertilizing power  Prostate gland ◦ Size of a peach pit which surrounds the urethra, it activates sperm as it travels through the ejaculatory duct into the urethra, it is then mixed with fluids from this gland  Cowper’s Gland Sperm mixes with thick mucus excretions which now forms semen, and it aids in sterilization of urethra


26  Testosterone ◦ The male sex hormone, which is released by the pituitary gland, is also responsible for the production of sperm)

27  Hernia ◦ Intestines rupture through a weak spot in the abdominal wall and push into the scrotum  Enlarged Prostate ◦ Occurring as a result of tumor, infection, or old age  Cancer of the prostate gland ◦ Uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland

28  Testicular Cancer ◦ Uncontrolled growth of cells in testes  Andropause ◦ Decrease in male sexual function due to diminished testosterone levels  Sterility ◦ Inability to reproduce due to poor quality of sperm or too few

29  Extreme temperature changes  Low sperm production  Exposure to certain chemicals  Contracting mumps as an adult  Smoking  STD’s  Malformation of the Epididymus, vas deferens, Cowper’s and prostate glands

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