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Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Chapter 12 1 + 1 = 3 (or More) The Reproductive System
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Reproductive System The reproductive system is responsible for the act of producing offspring –needs both male and female organs Theriogenology means animal reproduction The reproductive organs are called genitals –genit/o refers to the organs of reproduction
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Male Reproductive System The male reproductive system is responsible for the production and delivery of sperm to the egg to create life The structures of the male reproductive system include the scrotum, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, accessory sex glands, urethra, and penis
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Scrotum The scrotum or scrotal sac is the external pouch that encloses and supports the testes –The combining form for the scrotum is scrot/o The area between the scrotum and the anus in males is called the perineum –The combining form for the perineum is perine/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Testes The testes or testicles are the male sex glands that produce spermatozoa –The combining forms for the testes are orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o, and testicul/o –Testis is the singular form of testes The testes make spermatozoa –The combining forms for spermatozoa are sperm/o and spermat/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Epididymis The epididymis is the tube at the upper part of each testis that secretes part of the semen, stores semen before ejaculation, and provides a passageway for sperm –The combining form for the epididymis is epididym/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Ductus Deferens The ductus deferens is the tube connected to the epididymis that carries sperm into the pelvic region toward the urethra
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Accessory Sex Glands The accessory sex glands include the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland –Seminal vesicles secrete thick substance that nourishes sperm –The prostate gland secretes a thick fluid that aids in the motility of sperm –The bulbourethral glands secrete a thick mucus that acts as a lubricant for sperm Not all glands are present in all species
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Urethra The urethra is a singular tube passing through the penis to the outside of the body that serves both reproductive and urinary systems –The combining form for the urethra is urethr/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Penis The penis is the male sex organ that carries reproductive and urinary products out of the body –The combining forms for the penis are pen/i and priap/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system is responsible for the creation and support of new life The structures of the female reproductive system include the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, vulva, and mammary glands
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Ovaries The ovaries are a small pair of organs located in the caudal abdomen The ovaries produce estrogen, progesterone, and ova (eggs) The combining forms for ovary are ovari/o and oophor/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Uterine Tubes The uterine tubes are paired tubes that extend from the cranial portion of the uterus to the ovary (although they are not attached to the ovary) The uterine tubes carry ova from the ovary to the uterus and transport sperm The combining form for the uterine tubes is salping/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Uterus The uterus is a thick-walled, hollow organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining The combining forms for the uterus are hyster/o, metr/o, metri/o, and uter/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Cervix The cervix is the caudal continuation of the uterus and the cranial continuation of the vagina The cervix prevents foreign substances from entering the uterus The combining form for the cervix is cervic/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Vagina The vagina is the muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to outside the body The vagina accepts the penis during copulation The combining forms for the vagina are colop/o and vagin/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Vulva The vulva is the external opening to the urogenital tract that leads into the vagina –The perineum is the region between the vaginal orifice and anus in females The vulva consists of the vaginal orifice, vestibular glands, clitoris, hymen, and urethral orifice The combining forms for the vulva are vulv/o and episi/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Mammary Glands The mammary glands are milk-producing glands in females The number of mammary glands varies with the species –Litter-bearing species have mammae –Large animals have udders with teats Mammary glands are composed of connective tissue organized into lobes, lobules, and alveoli The combining forms for the mammary glands are mamm/o and mast/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Placenta The placenta is the female organ of mammals that develops during pregnancy and joins mother and offspring for exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products –The placenta is often referred to as the afterbirth
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Placenta The umbilical cord is the structure that forms where the fetus communicates with the placenta The umbilicus is the structure that forms on the abdominal wall where the umbilical cord was connected to the fetus –The combining form for umbilicus is umbilic/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Placenta and Associated Structures The innermost membrane that envelopes the fetus is the amnion The innermost layer of the placenta that forms a sac between itself and the amnion is the allantois The outermost layer of the placenta is the chorion
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Pregnancy and Birth Pregnancy is the condition of having a developing fetus in the uterus and is the time period between conception and parturition –The combining form for pregnancy is pregn/o Gestation is the period of development of the fetus in the uterus from conception to parturition and is the term more commonly used in animals –The combining forms for gestation are gest/o and gestat/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Pregnancy and Birth Parturition is the act of giving birth –The combining form for giving birth is part/o Parturition is divided into stages: –first stage = dilation of the cervix –second stage = uterine contractions and delivery of the fetus –third stage = separation of the placenta from the uterus
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Medical Terms for the Reproductive System Additional terms for reproductive system tests, pathology, and procedures can be found in the text Review the Flash! CD program to make sure you understand these terms
Reproductive System. The Reproductive System The reproductive system is responsible for the act of producing offspring needs both male and female.
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