Presentation on theme: "The Female Reproductive System Dr. Walid Daoud Assistant Professor."— Presentation transcript:
The Female Reproductive System Dr. Walid Daoud Assistant Professor
The Female Reproductive System Anatomy: Internal organs: 2 ovaries, 2 Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and vagina. External organs or genitalia or vulva: Labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule of the vagina and the gteater vestibular gland (Bartholin,s gland)
Internal organs of reproduction Ovaries: - On each side of the uterus. - They produce the ovum. - They produce hormones:. Estrogen.. Estrogen.. Progesterone.. Progesterone.
Internal organs of reproduction Functions of estrogen and progesterone: - Responsible for menstrual cycle and menopause. menopause. - Prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum. the fertilized ovum. - Help maintain pregnancy. - Promote growth of the placenta. - Development of secondary sex characters.
Fallopian tubes Muscular tubes that transport the ovum from the ovary to the uterus by a wavelike current. Fertilization normally occurs in the Fallopian tubes.
Internal organs of reproduction Uterus and vagina: Uterus: A muscular hollow structure, consists of 3 parts: Fundus, body and cervix. Vagina: A muscular tube that acts as a passageway for delivery of the fetus.
Menstrual cycle - This cycle occurs monthly in the unpregnant females and is called menses or menstruation. - If the mature ovum is fertilized, menstruation will not take place and menstruation will not take place and the fertilized ovum implants itself upon the uterine wall. the fertilized ovum implants itself upon the uterine wall.
Menstrual cycle Ovulation: It is the periodic ripening and rupturing of the mature graafian follicle results in discharge of the ovum from the cortex of the ovary to enter the Fallopian tube. It occurs 14 days before the next menstrual period.
Menstrual cycle Menstruation begins at puberty (10-16 years of age). The first menstruation is called menarch. Duration of flow 3-7 days. It usually occurs every 27-28 days. Menopause occurs at 40-50 years of age
Pregnancy Pregnancy is a normal physiological process in which the embryo develops in the uterus in approximately 280 days or 9 months. Changes associated with pregnancy …
Labor and Birth Labor is a physiological process by which the fetus is expelled from the uterus in 3 stages: - The stage of dilation. - The stage of expulsion. - The stage of labor.
Complications of Labor - Breech birth. - Large fetus (macrosomia). - Postpartum hemorrhage. Breech presentation and large fetus Breech presentation and large fetus and cephalopelvic disproportion and cephalopelvic disproportion (dystocia) may need C-section. (dystocia) may need C-section.
Disorders of The Female Reproductive System Menstrual Disorders: - Dysmenorrhea : painful menstruation. - Menorrhagia: excessive bleeding during regular menstruation. during regular menstruation. - Metrorrhagia: significant uterine bleeding between menstrual periods. bleeding between menstrual periods. - Amenorrhea: an absence of menstrual flow.
Disorders of The Female Reproductive System Endometriosis: A condition in which displaced tissue (resembling cells of the uterine lining) attach themselves to structures of the pelvic cavity outside the uterus e.g, ovaries, cervix, umbilicus, appendix and others.
Disorders of The Female Reproductive System Venereal disease (sexually-transmitted) - Gonorrhea: bacterial infection of urinary and genital organs. urinary and genital organs. - Syphilis: caused by spirochetes. - Herpes virus type II: genital herpes. - Herpes virus type I: vesicles on the vulva, perineum and buttocks. vulva, perineum and buttocks.
Disorders of The Female Reproductive System Nonvenereal diseases: - Trichomonas vaginalis: a protozoal infection of the vagina and produces a greenish-yellow frothy discharge. infection of the vagina and produces a greenish-yellow frothy discharge. -Candidiasis: a fungal infection produces a cheeselike discharge and pruritus. produces a cheeselike discharge and pruritus.
WR/CF related to the female reproductive system ExampleMeaningWR/CF cervic/o/colp/itis colp/o/cyst/itis gynec/o/pathy hyster/o/dynia labi/al metr/o/ptosis cervix, neck vaginafemaleuterusliputeruscervic/o colp/o or vagin/o gyn/o or gynec/ohyster/olabi/ometr/o
WR/CF related to the female reproductive system ExampleMeaningWR/CF oo/cyte oophor/oma perine/al salping/o/scope vesic/o/cervical episi/o/rrhaphy egg, ovum ovaryperineum Fallopian tubes bladdervulvaoo/o oophor/o or ovari/o perine/o or salping/ovesic/o vulv/o or episi/o
Suffixes related to the female reproductive system ExampleMeaningSuffix nulli/para hemo/salpinx dys/tocia multi/gravida to bear fallopian tubes childbirth, labor pregnancy-para-salpinx-tocia-gravida
Surgical terms related to the female reproductive system Page 245-248