2Sections 34.1-34.2 Endocrine System The function of the endocrine system is to produce chemical messengers (hormones) from glands to regulate certain body activities.
3Roles of endocrine glands: Pituitary: controls other glandsPineal: regulates sleep and wake cycles, along with other basic functionsHypothalamus: controls secretions of the pituitary glandThyroid: regulates metabolismParathyroid: maintains homeostasis in blood calcium levelsAdrenals: helps body prepare for and deal with stressPancreas: releases insulin and glucagon to regulate level of glucose in bloodOvaries (female): produces eggs and estrogen to create female characteristicsTestes (male): produces sperm and testosterone to create male characteristics
4Sections 34.3 & 34.4 Reproductive System Structures of the male reproductive system:Testes: primary male reproductive organ; produces sperm and releases hormone testosteroneScrotum: sac that houses the testes; it can raise or lowers to adjust the temperature so that it is optimal for sperm developmentEpididymis: comma shaped structure found on outside of testes; sperm travel here from testes to mature
5Vas deferens: tube leading to the epididymus to urethra; stores sperm until they are released from the bodySeminal vesicles: first gland that sperm pass on their way out of the body; secretes a liquid containing fructose to nourish sperm and give them energy needed to swimProstate gland: next gland; secretes an alkaline substance that makes up most of the seminal fluid; this fluid protects sperm from acid in male urethra and increases motility
6Bulbourethral gland: last gland; small and closest to urethra; secretes an alkaline substance often secreted before ejaculation to prepare urethra for spermUrethra: passageway leading from bladder to exterior of body; common outlet for semen and urinePenis: organ through which urine or semen must pass to exit the body; organ by which semen is introduced to female vagina
7Glans penis: enlarged end of penis; the head Ejaculation: when male is sexually aroused, autonomic nervous system prepares male organs to deliver sperm; smooth muscles lining glands of reproductive tract contract and eject sperm from male body; If sperm are released into reproductive tract of female, chances of one sperm finding an egg are quite good
9Structures of the female reproductive system: Ovaries: primary female reproductive organs; produce eggs and release estrogenFimbrae: fingerlike projections that accept the egg from the ovary to to the Fallopian tubeFallopian tubes: tube that carries mature egg from ovary to uterus; place where fertilization ocurs
10Uterus: hollow muscular cavity that receives the fertilized egg and where the fetus develops; where the egg disintegrates if not fertilizedCervix: lower portion of uterus; opening that leads to the vaginaVagina: passageway that leads from uterus to outside body; where babies pass through to be born and male’s penis is introduced
11Vulva: collective term for the external reproductive organs of the female Clitoris: small organ made of erect tissue; homologous to the head of the penisEndometrium: the lining of uterus; each month it becomes thick to prepare for fertilization; sloughed off if no fertilizationsOvulation: process of releasing an egg from the ovary
124 Phases of Menstrual Cycle FollicularOvulationLutealMenstruation
13Zygote’s Early Development Initially the zygote is a single cell just the size of a dotAt four days, embryo is about 64 cells6-7 days after fertilization, embryo implants into uterine wallPlacenta forms by 3rd week. It is the organ through which mother and child exchange gases and nutrients; the blood of the mother and infant do not actually mix, but flow past each other and gases and nutrients diffuse across thin membranes
14The amniotic sac also develops, which is a fluid filled sac that protects the baby within the uterus.After 4 weeks, the heart starts beatingAfter 6 weeks, limb buds appear
15Later Stages of Development By 3 months, most of the baby’s major organs have formed.During 2nd trimester, the mother starts to visibly look pregnant, the fetal heartbeat can be heard from a stethoscope, and mother can feel fetus moveIn the 3rd Trimester, the organ systems mature and the fetus doubles in size.
16ChildbirthAfter 9 months, the child is fully developed and ready to be born.Oxytocin is released, which causes contractions of the uterine walls.Cervix opensAmniotic sac breaksThe after-birth follows: the placenta, amniotic sac, and umbilical cord still attached