2 Male Reproductive System It includes both internal and external organsTwo main functions:Production and storage of sperm –The male reproductive cellsAnd the transfer of sperm to the female’s body during sexual intercourse.
3 Male Reproductive System Early teen years (12-15 years old), the male reproductive reaches maturity.Testosterone –The male sex hormoneProduced in the pituitary gland
4 Testosterone Initiates physical changes that signal maturity: Broadening of the shouldersDevelopment of musclesFacial and body hairDeepening of the voiceControls the production of sperm
6 External Male Reproductive Organs Testes (singular, testis)ScrotumPenis
7 Testis Located in the scrotum Divided into tiny tubules in which sperm are formedPart of both the reproductive and endocrine systemProduce male sex hormones (testosterone)Temperature regulation – Ideal right below body temperatureCremasteric muscle and reflexWhen this muscle contracts, the spermatic cord is shortened and the testicle is moved closer up toward the body, which provides slightly more warmth to maintain optimal testicular temperature.When cooling is required, the cremasteric muscle relaxes and the testicle is lowered away from the warm body and is able to cool.Located in the scrotum
8 Scrotum Skin and muscle containing the testicles It is an extension of the abdomenAn external skin sac
9 PenisTube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk of the body just above the testes.Composed of spongy tissue that contains many blood vessels.When blood flow to the penis increases, it becomes enlarged and erect.Also called an erection
10 Semen Released by the penis It is a thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive system.
11 Internal Male Reproductive Organs Vas deferensUrethraSeminal vesiclesProstate glandCowper’s gland
12 Vas Deferens Tubes that extend from each epididymis to the urethra During ejaculation smooth muscle walls contractPropel sperm to urethraVasectomy
13 UrethraPassageway which both semen and urine leave the male body
14 Seminal Vesicle Provides nourishing fluid for sperm Fluid eventually creates semenFluid is high in proteins, enzymes, fructose, mucus, vitamin CThe high fructose concentrations provide nutrient energy for the spermatozoa
15 Prostate GlandTo store and secrete a clear, slightly alkaline fluid that constitutes 10-30% of the volume of the seminal fluidRest of the seminal fluid is produced by the two seminal vesiclesThe alkalinity of seminal fluid helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm.Contain smooth muscles that help expel semen during ejaculation.A healthy human prostate is slightly larger than a walnutIt surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder and can be felt during a rectal exam.
16 Cowper’s Glands Bulbourethral gland During sexual arousal each gland produces a clear secretion known as pre-ejaculate.Fluid helps to lubricate the urethra for spermatozoa to pass throughHelps flush out any residual urine or foreign matter
17 Epididymis Where sperm mature and are stored They lack the ability to swim forward (motility) and to fertilize an egg
19 Female Reproductive System Produces female sex hormonesStores female reproductive cellsOva (singular, ovum)
20 Ovaries Female sex gland Produce female sex hormones Store ova (egg) 400,000 at birth1 matures each monthOvulation – process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each monthThe right ovary will release a mature ovum one month, and the left ovary will release one the next month.
23 Fallopian TubesA pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw in the ovumEggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus via the fallopian tubesTiny hair-like structures called cilia line the tubes and move egg alongEctopic pregnancy
24 VaginaA muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the bodySperm from the male enter the female reproductive system through here.
25 FertilizationIf sperm are present in the fallopian tubes, a sperm cell may unite with an ovum.Fertilization of an egg by a sperm is called a zygote.When the zygote leaves the fallopian tube, it enters the uterus.Attaches itself to the uterine wall and begins to grow.
26 Uterus Hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ Nourishes and protects the fertilized egg
27 Menstruation Each month the uterus prepares for possible pregnancy If pregnancy doesn’t occur, the thickened lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, isn’t needed, and it breaks down into blood, tissue, and fluids.These materials pass through the cervix and into the vagina.
28 Cervix Opening of the uterus The lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vaginaIt’s a cylindrical shapeDuring menstruation the cervix stretches open slightly to allow the endometrium to be shedDuring childbirth, contractions of the uterus will dilate the cervix up to 10 cm in diameter to allow the fetus to pass through.
29 Endometrium Tissue that lines the uterus Menstrual cycle Day 1-8: after seven days, if the egg is not fertilized, menstruation beginsDay 9-23: A new egg is maturing inside the ovaryDay 24: The mature egg is released into one of the fallopian tubesDay 25-28: The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus.
30 Vulva labia majora labia minora clitoris vaginal orifice The region of the external genital organs of the female, including the:labia majoralabia minoraclitorisvaginal orifice