Presentation on theme: "Root Words Integumentary and Reproductive System Heather Wipijewski CVT ALAT This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s."— Presentation transcript:
Root Words Integumentary and Reproductive System Heather Wipijewski CVT ALAT This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded under the President’s Community-Based Job Training Grants as implemented by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration. The solution was created by the grantee and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor. The Department of Labor makes no guarantees, warranties, or assurances of any kind, express or implied, with respect to such information, including any information on linked sites and including, but not limited to, accuracy of the information or its completeness, timeliness, usefulness, adequacy, continued availability, or ownership. This solution is copyrighted by the institution that created it. Internal use by an organization and/or personal use by an individual for non-commercial purposes is permissible. All other uses require the prior authorization of the copyright owner.
FUNCTIONS ► Consists of skin and its appendages (glands, hair, fur, wool, feathers, scales, claws, beaks, horns, hooves and nails.) ► One of the largest organ systems in the body. ► Skin – Plays a role in immunologic system, water- proofs the body, prevents fluid loss, provides species-specific coloration and provides a site for Vitamin D synthesis. ► Cutane/o, derm/o, dermat/o -derma
LAYERS ► Epidermis – Outermost or most superficial layer of skin. ► Epi- = above dermis = skin ► Several layers thick ► Doesn’t contain blood vessels. ► Depends on deeper layers for nourishment. ► Thickness varies based on location. ► Thickets layers are found in foot pads and teats. Epidermis
LAYERS CONT. ► Dermis – Layer directly deep to the epidermis. ► Composed of blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibers and the accessory organs of the skin. ► Contains connective tissue. ► Subcutaneous – Located deep to or under the dermis. ► Composed of connective tissue. ► Contains a large amount of fat.
GLANDS ► Sebaceous – Oil glands. ► Secrete an oily substance called sebum. Seb/o ► Located in the dermis ► Closely associated with hair follicles. ► Sebum is released from its gland through ducts that open into the hair follicles. ► Moves to skin surface where it lubricates the skin. ► Sweat – Located in the dermis ► Divided into eccrine and apocrine glands. ► Eccrine – produce and secrete water, salt and waste (sweat) and are located in various regions of the body depending on species. ► Apocrine – Found throughout the body. Secrete a strong smelling substance into the hair follicles.
HAIR ► Rod like fibers made of dead protein cells filled with keratin. ► Pil/i, pil/o, trich/o ► Hair Follicles – sacs that hold hair fibers. ► Piloerection – Act of hair standing straight up.
NAILS, CLAWS AND HOOVES ► All have wall, sole, and pad. ► Nails and claws – Keratin plates covering dorsal surface of distal phalanx. ► Beneath wall and sole is the connective tissue dermis, which contains numerous blood vessels and nerve endings. This is known as the quick ► Onych/o = claw Onychectomy = declaw
NAILS, CLAWS AND HOOVES CONT. ► Hooves – Horny covering of the distal phalanx in hooved animals – equine. ► Some have cloven or split hooves – ruminants and swine.
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ► Responsible for producing offspring. ► Theriogenology (thēr-ē-ō-jehn-ohl-ō-jē) – study of animal reproduction ► Genitals – genit/o
MALES ► Scrotum – External pouch that encloses and supports the testes. ► Testes are supported outside the body so they are at a lower temperature than body temperature – which is needed for sperm production. ► Scrot/o ► Perineum – Area between the scrotum (vulvas in females) and anus perine/o
MALES CONT. ► Testes – Male sex glands that produce spermatozoa. ► Orch/o orchi/o orchid/o test/o testicul/o ► Develop in fetal abdomen and descend into scrotum before birth. ► Testes are suspended in scrotum by the spermatic cord. ► Divided into compartments that contain coiled tubes called the seminiferous tubules. ► Sperm – sperm/o spermat/o
MALES CONT. ► Epididymis – Tube at the upper part of each testis that secretes part of the semen, stores semen before ejaculationa nd provides a passageway for sperm. ► Divided into the head, body and tail. ► Epididym/o ► Ductus Deferens – Tube connected to epidiymis that carries sperm into the pelvic region toward the urethra.
MALES CONT. ► Prostate gland – Single gland that surrounds or is near the urethra and may be well defined or diffuse, depending on species. ► Secretes a thick fluid that aids in motility of sperm. ► Prostat/o ► Bulbourethral gland – 2 glands located on either side of the urethra. ► Secrete a thick mucus that acts as a lubricant for sperm.
MALES CONT. ► Penis – Male sex organ that carries reproductive and urinary products out of the body. ► Prepuce – Retractable fold of skin covering the glans penis (part of the penis on which the urethra opens) ► Os penis – Bone encased in the penile tissue. ► Pen/I priap/o - penis
FEMALES ► Function – Create and support new life. ► Ovaries – Small pair of organs located in the caudal abdomen. ► Produces estrogen, progesterone and ova (eggs). ► Ovari/o oophor/o – ovaries ► Oo/o ov/i ov/o – egg ► Egg cell is an oocyte
FEMALES ► Uterine Tubes – Paired tubes that extend from the cranial portion of the uterus to the ovary (they are not attached to the ovary) ► Also known as oviducts and fallopian tubes. ► Salping/o ► Uterus - Thick walled, hollow organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining that houses the developing embryo in pregnant females. ► Hyster/o metr/o metri/o uter/o
FEMALES CONT. ► Cervix – Caudal continuation of the uterus and marks the cranial extent of the vagina. ► Contains ring-like smooth muscle called spincters. ► Main fuction is to prevent foreign substances from entering the uterus. ► Cervic/o
FEMALES ► Vagina – Muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to outside the body. ► Serves as a passage for semen ► Colop/o vagin/o ► Vulva – External opening to the urogenital tract and consists of the vaginal ofifice. ► Vulv/o episi/o
FEMALES ► Mammary Glands – Milk producing glands in females. ► Number varies with species ► Mare, ewe and doe (goat) have 2 ► Cows have 4 ► Sows have 6 or more pairs ► Bitches and queens have 4 or more pairs. ► Udder – Mammary gland in large animals. ► Quarters – In cows – the four mammae
ESTROUS CYCLE ► Heat cycle ► Proestrus – period of estrous cycle before sexual receptivity. ► Secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) ► FSH stimulates ovarian release of estrogen, which helps prepare the reproductive tract for pregnancy.
ESTROUS ► Estrus – Period in which the female is receptive to the male. FSH levels decrease. ► Ovulation occurs ► “standing heat” ► Metestrus – period after sexual receptivity. ► May be followed by diestrus, estrus, pregnancy or false pregnancy.
ESTROUS ► Diestrus – Period after metestrus. ► Short phase of inactivity and quietness. ► Anestrus – Period when the animal is sexually quiet. ► This phase is seen in seasonally polyestrous and seasonally monestrous animals.
TERMS ► Copulate – sexual intercourse ► Placenta – afterbirth ► Umbilical cord – Structure that forms where the fetus communicates with the placenta. ► Umbilicus – Structure that forms on the abdominal wall where the umbilical cord was connected to the fetus. Also known as the navel. ► Umbilic/o ► Tie – Period of copulation between a male and female during which the 2 animals are locked together by penile erectile tissue.