Presentation on theme: "Road to the Civil War The Civil War (1861-1865) a period of war between Northern + Southern states – Army of the Union (U.S.)- 23 states – Confederate."— Presentation transcript:
Road to the Civil War
The Civil War ( ) a period of war between Northern + Southern states – Army of the Union (U.S.)- 23 states – Confederate States of America (C.S.A.)- 11 states 600,000 soldiers died – More than all the deaths of our other campaigns! – Over ½ die from disease than bullets
A Deeply Divided America 31,000,000 citizens – 34 states (Minnesota, Oregon, Kansas) – 3,000,000 slaves in South (½ of total pop.) – Blacks born & live in filth, disease, ignorance Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan were Presidents between – Largely ineffective - inactions helped further the cause for war
Compromise of 1850 In 1849, there were 15 slave states and 15 free states California applied for statehood Oregon, Utah and New Mexico were close to applying for statehood ALL wanted to be free states This would upset the balance Southern slave states feared they would lose votes in the Senate
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 “Bleeding Kansas”
Dred Scott Decision - FACTS: Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri. (MO) Scott and his owner moved to Wisconsin for four years. Scott’s owner died after returning to Missouri. Scott sued for his freedom. He claimed that he should be a free man since he lived in a free territory (WI) for four years. Dred Scott
A: NO SUPREME COURT DECISIONS: Q: Was Scott a U.S. citizen with the right to sue? A: NO Q: Did living in a free territory make Scott a free man? A: NO Q: Did Congress have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory?
The Missouri Compromise was found to be unconstitutional. RESULTS: Dred Scott was not given his freedom.
Causes of the Civil War Why Texas Got Involved
1. Sectionalism Sectionalism - loyalty to your state or section of the country first and the nation second : >
Texas grew the chief cash crop, cotton Texas had an economy based on agriculture, a plantation lifestyle, the views of the Democratic party, and the institution of slavery.
Sectionalism Why was the north AGAINST sectionalism? North wanted to preserve the Union. Why was the south FOR sectionalism? South wanted the ability to choose what they thought was best for their state (slavery).
2. States’ Rights States’ Rights: theory that a state could choose whether to obey or enforce federal laws North was AGAINST states’ rights because they thought laws applied to ALL states.
Southerners supported states’ rights. They believed that they had the right to own slaves and even, or leave the Union, if they desired. Southerners supported states’ rights. They believed that they had the right to own slaves and even secede, or leave the Union, if they desired. Texas & seceding states believed Federal gov’t should not be involved in state decisions United States Law
3. Tariffs We also support a higher tariff Tariffs: a tax placed on imported goods -NORTH was FOR tariffs because most industry was located in the north. REPUBLICAN
Tariffs -SOUTH was AGAINST tariffs because they were afraid the taxes would destroy their economy. Texans – low tariffs to continue to trade cotton with European nations
Slavery - main cause of the Civil War The South viewed slavery as a necessity to maintain their economy. Texans & South believed slavery was vital to the economy However, many people in the North viewed slavery as evil and unconstitutional.
4. Slavery Tariffs: Southern economy depended on slavery high tariffs would hurt the southern economy States’ Rights: Southern states wanted to be able to decide for themselves whether to have slavery or not Sectionalism: Southern states put their interests ahead of the nation’s interest of staying unified
REPUBLICAN Lincoln’s election in 1860 angers South – slaveholders call him “The Black Republican” - S. Carolina secedes on Dec. 20, 1860 Lincoln elected president – 16 th President The Election of 1860 Lincoln wins 180 of 303 electoral votes Won only 40% of popular vote
When Republican Abraham Lincoln won the Election of 1860, Southerners believed that their rights would no longer be respected. Many southerners believed it was time to leave the Union.
Secession Convention Secede: Withdraw or break away from the Union Confederacy: 11 states Union: 20 states
TX officially seceded in 1861 – TX joins the Confederacy At the Secession Convention, Texas’s lawmakers voted to secede by a vote of 166 to 8, and the people of Texas voted for secession by a margin of more than 3 to 1. Texans believed citizens should be allowed to own slaves
1861: Secession Map
Sam Houston was Governor Houston was against Texas’s secession. After secession passed Houston hoped Texas would then remain independent, instead of joining the Confederacy. Texas Secession Convention ordered all state officials take an oath of allegiance to Confederacy Houston’s refusal to swear oath to Confederacy led him to be removed as governor
Lincoln becomes President of USA Southern States Secede