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Antebellum America October 1, 2013. Standard: SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia. a. Explain the.

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Presentation on theme: "Antebellum America October 1, 2013. Standard: SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia. a. Explain the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Antebellum America October 1, 2013

2 Standard: SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia. a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens

3 Antebellum America  Antebellum (the period before the Civil War) America was a time of great change in the United States  The population was growing, new states were added, new technology was being developed, and a new president was elected  All of these things, and more, would lead up to the American Civil War

4 New Technology – The Cotton Gin  In 1793, a man named Eli Whitney invented the cotton engine (shortened to cotton gin)  The purpose of the cotton gin was to separate the seed from the cotton itself  Prior to this invention, a worker might be able to separate 6 or 7 pounds a day by hand  Now workers could separate 50 pounds a day  This led to more slaves being brought to cotton plantations in the South because they could now grow more cotton

5 New Technology - Railroads  Prior to railroads, people would have to travel by horse, boat, or stagecoach  Farmers and manufacturers had to ship small amounts of goods at a time, and at a very slow pace  When the railroads were built, people and goods could move faster, speeding up production, which led to more slaves being needed in the South

6 Slavery  Since the cotton gin made producing cotton more cost effective, the numbers of slaves grew in the South  By 1860, there were 118,000 white families in Georgia  Of these, 35% owned slaves  In 1860, there were 3,500 free blacks in Georgia  There were 4 million slaves in the country, and almost 12% lived in Georgia

7 Government in Antebellum America  The United States government was firmly divided between North and South by the early 1800s  There were many disagreements, not just over the issue of slavery  All of these helped lead to the American Civil War

8 States’ Rights  States’ Rights is the belief that the state’s interests should take precedence over the interests of the national government  The North believed that in order for the U.S. to function as a Union, then political decisions should affect the entire country  The South believed that the states had a right to govern themselves and decide what is best for their own needs

9 Nullification  Nullification (preventing the enforcement of a federal law) was an issue in 1832  South Carolina challenged the enforcement of a tariff (tax) and eventually nullified that tariff  South Carolina threatened to leave the U.S. if federal government would not compromise  Eventually, a compromise was reached and South Carolina repealed its nullification of the tariff

10 The Missouri Compromise  In 1819, there were 22 states  11 were slave states and 11 were free states  This meant there was an equal number of senators in Congress from slave states and free states  Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state  This would mean there would be an uneven number of slave and free states  After much debate, the Missouri Compromise in 1820 allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state, so the balance of power would remain the same

11 Compromise of 1850  In 1849, California applied to become a free state  There were 15 slave states and 15 free states at the time  This would shift the balance of power  Senator Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850 to please both the North and the South

12 Compromise of 1850  Benefits for North  California is free state  Slave trading ended in Washington D.C. (the national capital)  Texas gave up the New Mexico territory, so Texas (a slave state) was now smaller  Benefits for South  New Mexico and Utah would decide to be free or slave states on their own  Residents of D.C. could keep the slaves they already had  Congress would pass the Fugitive Slave Act, that guaranteed that runaway slaves would be returned to their owners, even if they made it to a free state

13 The Georgia Platform  Many Georgians did not like the Compromise of 1850  Alexander Stephens, a Georgia politician, asked Georgians to accept it  “The Georgia Platform” was adopted that officially accepted the compromise for the people of Georgia  Many Georgians knew that if Georgia were to remain part of the U.S., they would need to accept the Compromise

14 Kansas-Nebraska Act  In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed which created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska  The act contained a clause on popular sovereignty, which means that people in that territory can vote to become a free state or slave state  After the act was passed, deadly fights broke out between proslavery and anti-slavery groups  When Kansas applied to become a slave state, they were rejected based on votes from Northern states  This made southerners realize that northern votes alone could keep slave states out of the Union

15 The Dred Scott Case  In 1834, Dred Scott, a slave, was taken by his owner from Missouri (slave state) to Illinois (free state), and later Wisconsin (free state)  When Scott’s owner died, he returned to Missouri and filed a lawsuit claiming he was free since he had lived in a free state  The case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, and in 1857, the court ruled that Scott could not file a lawsuit since he was a slave, and therefore, not a citizen of the U.S.  This further divided the North and South and pushed them closer to war

16 The Presidential Election of Democrats  Democrats met in South Carolina in 1860 to decide on a presidential nominee  After much arguing, Northern Democrats split from Southern Democrats  Northern Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas for President of the U.S.  Southern Democrats nominated John Breckinridge for President of the U.S.  Politicians from the border states met separately and nominated John Bell

17 The Presidential Election of Republicans  Republicans met in Chicago and nominated Abraham Lincoln for President of the U.S.  Republicans, who said they would not actively try to end slavery, were proposing many measures that would not benefit the South  The party appeared to be against everything Southerners wanted

18 The Presidential Election of Results  For the first time, a candidate who got votes from only one section of the country won the election  Abraham Lincoln received 1.9 million votes (a minority) and was elected president  However, the other candidates split the Southern vote, so none received enough to be elected

19 Election Results Map ~ Red – Lincoln ~Dark Gray – Breckenridge ~Light Gray – Douglas ~Green – Bell ~Tan – Territories (do not vote)

20 The Question of Secession  After Lincoln’s election, talk of secession (the act of leaving the Union) and war was all over the South  Georgia’s governor called a special legislative session to determine whether to secede  For the most part, Georgia citizens wanted to stay part of the Union, but they also wanted states’ rights and to support their lifestyle

21 The Role of Alexander Stephens  Alexander Stephens, a Georgia legislator, was against secession  He made several stirring speeches, calling for Georgians to wait to see what other states would do  He was, however, voted down, and on January 19, 1861, Georgia seceded from the Union  Ironically, Alexander Stephens would go on to become vice-president of the Confederacy

22 Questions…  1) What does “antebellum” mean?  2) What was the purpose of the cotton gin?  3) How did the invention of the cotton gin lead to the need for more slaves?  4) How did the invention of railroads lead to the need for more slaves?  5) What is states’ rights?  6) What region was for states’ rights? What region was against states’ rights?  7) What is nullification?  8) What was the Missouri Compromise?  9) How did the Compromise of 1850 benefit the North?  10) How did the Compromise of 1850 benefit the South?  11) What did the Georgia Platform do?  12) What is popular sovereignty?  13) Who was Dred Scott?  14) What did the Dred Scott decision say?  15) Why was Abraham Lincoln elected in the election of 1860?  16) When did Georgia secede from the Union?  17) Who became vice president of the Confederacy?


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