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Antebellum America October 1, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Antebellum America October 1, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Antebellum America October 1, 2013

2 Standard: SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia. a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens

3 Antebellum America Antebellum (the period before the Civil War) America was a time of great change in the United States The population was growing, new states were added, new technology was being developed, and a new president was elected All of these things, and more, would lead up to the American Civil War

4 New Technology – The Cotton Gin
In 1793, a man named Eli Whitney invented the cotton engine (shortened to cotton gin) The purpose of the cotton gin was to separate the seed from the cotton itself Prior to this invention, a worker might be able to separate 6 or 7 pounds a day by hand Now workers could separate 50 pounds a day This led to more slaves being brought to cotton plantations in the South because they could now grow more cotton

5 New Technology - Railroads
Prior to railroads, people would have to travel by horse, boat, or stagecoach Farmers and manufacturers had to ship small amounts of goods at a time, and at a very slow pace When the railroads were built, people and goods could move faster, speeding up production, which led to more slaves being needed in the South

6 Slavery Since the cotton gin made producing cotton more cost effective, the numbers of slaves grew in the South By 1860, there were 118,000 white families in Georgia Of these, 35% owned slaves In 1860, there were 3,500 free blacks in Georgia There were 4 million slaves in the country, and almost 12% lived in Georgia

7 Government in Antebellum America
The United States government was firmly divided between North and South by the early 1800s There were many disagreements, not just over the issue of slavery All of these helped lead to the American Civil War

8 States’ Rights States’ Rights is the belief that the state’s interests should take precedence over the interests of the national government The North believed that in order for the U.S. to function as a Union, then political decisions should affect the entire country The South believed that the states had a right to govern themselves and decide what is best for their own needs

9 Nullification Nullification (preventing the enforcement of a federal law) was an issue in 1832 South Carolina challenged the enforcement of a tariff (tax) and eventually nullified that tariff South Carolina threatened to leave the U.S. if federal government would not compromise Eventually, a compromise was reached and South Carolina repealed its nullification of the tariff

10 The Missouri Compromise
In 1819, there were 22 states 11 were slave states and 11 were free states This meant there was an equal number of senators in Congress from slave states and free states Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state This would mean there would be an uneven number of slave and free states After much debate, the Missouri Compromise in 1820 allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state, so the balance of power would remain the same

11 Compromise of 1850 In 1849, California applied to become a free state
There were 15 slave states and 15 free states at the time This would shift the balance of power Senator Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850 to please both the North and the South

12 Compromise of 1850 Benefits for North Benefits for South
California is free state Slave trading ended in Washington D.C. (the national capital) Texas gave up the New Mexico territory, so Texas (a slave state) was now smaller Benefits for South New Mexico and Utah would decide to be free or slave states on their own Residents of D.C. could keep the slaves they already had Congress would pass the Fugitive Slave Act, that guaranteed that runaway slaves would be returned to their owners, even if they made it to a free state

13 The Georgia Platform Many Georgians did not like the Compromise of 1850 Alexander Stephens, a Georgia politician, asked Georgians to accept it “The Georgia Platform” was adopted that officially accepted the compromise for the people of Georgia Many Georgians knew that if Georgia were to remain part of the U.S., they would need to accept the Compromise

14 Kansas-Nebraska Act In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed which created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska The act contained a clause on popular sovereignty, which means that people in that territory can vote to become a free state or slave state After the act was passed, deadly fights broke out between proslavery and anti-slavery groups When Kansas applied to become a slave state, they were rejected based on votes from Northern states This made southerners realize that northern votes alone could keep slave states out of the Union

15 The Dred Scott Case In 1834, Dred Scott, a slave, was taken by his owner from Missouri (slave state) to Illinois (free state), and later Wisconsin (free state) When Scott’s owner died, he returned to Missouri and filed a lawsuit claiming he was free since he had lived in a free state The case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, and in 1857, the court ruled that Scott could not file a lawsuit since he was a slave, and therefore, not a citizen of the U.S. This further divided the North and South and pushed them closer to war

16 The Presidential Election of 1860 - Democrats
Democrats met in South Carolina in 1860 to decide on a presidential nominee After much arguing, Northern Democrats split from Southern Democrats Northern Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas for President of the U.S. Southern Democrats nominated John Breckinridge for President of the U.S. Politicians from the border states met separately and nominated John Bell

17 The Presidential Election of 1860 - Republicans
Republicans met in Chicago and nominated Abraham Lincoln for President of the U.S. Republicans, who said they would not actively try to end slavery, were proposing many measures that would not benefit the South The party appeared to be against everything Southerners wanted

18 The Presidential Election of 1860 - Results
For the first time, a candidate who got votes from only one section of the country won the election Abraham Lincoln received 1.9 million votes (a minority) and was elected president However, the other candidates split the Southern vote, so none received enough to be elected

19 Election Results Map ~ Red – Lincoln ~Dark Gray – Breckenridge
~Light Gray – Douglas ~Green – Bell ~Tan – Territories (do not vote)

20 The Question of Secession
After Lincoln’s election, talk of secession (the act of leaving the Union) and war was all over the South Georgia’s governor called a special legislative session to determine whether to secede For the most part, Georgia citizens wanted to stay part of the Union, but they also wanted states’ rights and to support their lifestyle

21 The Role of Alexander Stephens
Alexander Stephens, a Georgia legislator, was against secession He made several stirring speeches, calling for Georgians to wait to see what other states would do He was, however, voted down, and on January 19, 1861, Georgia seceded from the Union Ironically, Alexander Stephens would go on to become vice-president of the Confederacy

22 Questions… 1) What does “antebellum” mean?
2) What was the purpose of the cotton gin? 3) How did the invention of the cotton gin lead to the need for more slaves? 4) How did the invention of railroads lead to the need for more slaves? 5) What is states’ rights? 6) What region was for states’ rights? What region was against states’ rights? 7) What is nullification? 8) What was the Missouri Compromise? 9) How did the Compromise of 1850 benefit the North? 10) How did the Compromise of 1850 benefit the South? 11) What did the Georgia Platform do? 12) What is popular sovereignty? 13) Who was Dred Scott? 14) What did the Dred Scott decision say? 15) Why was Abraham Lincoln elected in the election of 1860? 16) When did Georgia secede from the Union? 17) Who became vice president of the Confederacy?

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