Presentation on theme: " David Wilmot – a Pennsylvanian Democratic Congressman Born in 1814 During his political career was a Democratic, Free Soiler, and Republican. Proposed."— Presentation transcript:
David Wilmot – a Pennsylvanian Democratic Congressman Born in 1814 During his political career was a Democratic, Free Soiler, and Republican. Proposed the Wilmot Proviso as a solution to the slavery conflict of new territories created from the Mexican Cession. Did not oppose slavery itself, just expansion of it.
Meant to ban slavery throughout the new territories acquired through the Mexican American war. Was liked by Northerners but not the Southerners Passed through the House many times, but never the Senate because of a southern majority. Was proposed on August 8, 1846
Political Power Never about whether slavery was morally right or wrong Expansion of slavery would give the south more power in representation Many northerners thought that President Polk, his Cabinet and the national agenda had more southern influence and favored the south
Division Further parting of political parties National division (north and south) Intensified conflict Lead to the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850 The annexation of Texas and the gaining of the Mexican Cession land made the U.S. re- examine the issue of slavery. They had to decide if new states would be slave or free. When California asked to become a free state in 1849 people began arguing. The 36x30 line cut right thru the middle of California.
North demanding abolition of slavery in D.C. South upset North wasn’t enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 Southern states threatening secession- the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union
Henry Clay came out of retirement to help write the Compromise of 1850 When it passed people believed this would finally solve the problem of what to do about slavery.
Terms of the Compromise 1.California would be admitted as a free state. 2.All other territories could decide when they applied for statehood if they wanted to be slave or free=Popular Sovereignty 3.The slave trade would be outlawed in D.C. 4.This compromise included the Fugitive Slave Act=it was now a CRIME to help runaway slaves even in the North. This made many people in the North very angry. 5.Texas agreed to give up its claims to New Mexico for $10 million. This let Texas pay off her debt and gave us our present day borders.
Senate rejects compromise in July Stephen Douglas- introduced one provision at a time to vote on John Calhoun- opposed compromise, dies Millard Fillmore- Taylor’s successor as president, supported the compromise After 8 months Compromise of 1850 is voted into law
Dred Scott Decision 1857 Dred Scott was an African American slave who belonged to an Army officer. He traveled with his owner and lived in 2 free states for several years. At one point he even traveled alone through free territories to join his master in the South. He never sued for his freedom while his master was alive. However, shortly after the Army officer died, his widow hired Scott out to someone else. At this point, Scott tried to buy his freedom. He was denied.
Abolitionist lawyers took his case and helped him sue for his freedom on the grounds that he had lived in 2 free states and should have been given his freedom. His case was in the courts for 10 years. Some found in his favor, others found against him. He decided to appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1856. Of the 9 Supreme Court justices 7 had been appointed by pro-slavery, Southern presidents and 5 were from slave holding families.
The Supreme Court ruled that because Scott was black he was not a citizen of the United States and therefore he had no right to sue. The justices also declared that the Missouri Compromise and its attempt to restrict slavery in territories North of the 36x30 line was unconstitutional. Northerners were furious and this decision had a huge impact on the 1860 election of the Republican nominee=Abraham Lincoln. The sons of the man who had owned Dred Scott had paid his legal fees for years trying to help him win his freedom. After the Supreme Court decision, they bought Scott and his wife from the widow and set him free. Scott died 9 months later a free man.
On the section DRED SCOTT DECISION write: 1.The Supreme Court of 1857 ruled that people of African ancestry were not citizens and could not sue in Federal Court for freedom or anything else. 2.They also ruled that the Missouri Compromise was not legal. They stated the government can not tell states they have to be slave or free. 3.Results: 1.Angry anti-slavery voters voted for Abraham Lincoln for president in 1860.
Write in the section Presidential Election of 1860 1860-Republican Abraham Lincoln won the Presidency. Republicans promised to: End the spread of slavery Impose tariffs to protect US businesses Give free land in the West to settlers
In the South: There were no votes for Lincoln-they feared he would end slavery Southern states started seceding-leaving the United States In Texas, Sam Houston and other Unionists urged Texans not to secede Unionist=Southerner who wanted to stay with the Union February 23, 1861-Texas secedes from the Union. They join other states to form the Confederate States of America=Confederacy Sam Houston is removed from the office of governor after he refuses to take the Oath of the Confederacy=promise to support and defend the Confederacy