Presentation on theme: "The issues that tore our nation apart"— Presentation transcript:
1 The issues that tore our nation apart Causes of the Civil WarThe issues that tore our nation apart
2 Cause #1SectionalismNorth = UnionSouth = Confederacy
3 SectionalismSectionalism – the excessive devotion to local interests and customs to a region of a nation.The intense feelings of sectionalism further divided the country into two separate sections- North and South.NorthSouth
4 Prior to the Civil War, the United States was not really united. Our country was more like two separate countries sharing the same land.Cause #1 SectionalismNorthSouth
5 The North had industry, large cities, a diverse population, and favored the politics of the Republican party which supported the abolition of slavery.Cause #1 Sectionalism
6 Cause #1 SectionalismSoutherners were especially loyal to their section. They thought of themselves...as citizens of their own state first,as Southerners second,and as U.S. citizens third.
7 Slavery was a cause of the Civil War for two reasons. Cause #2 SlaverySlavery was a cause of the Civil War for two reasons.#1. The South viewed slavery as a necessity to maintaining economic wealth.Texas believed that slavery was vital to the economy.However, many people in the North viewed slavery as evil and unconstitutional.
8 #2. Slavery was not just a moral issue but a political issue as well. Cause #2 Slavery#2. Slavery was not just a moral issue but a political issue as well.Which ever section of the U.S, North or South, had more states would have more power in Congress.
9 Cause #2 SlaveryBoth Northerners and Southerners fought fiercely over the moral and political issue of slavery.If the U.S. had been founded without slavery, then the following causes of the Civil War may have never been issues.
10 More Problems Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves.It was now a CRIME to help runaway slaves even in the North. This made many people in the North very angry.
11 Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 South: Differences in the North and South Judges could get $10 for each runaway slaveSlaves were denied a trial by jury & the right to testifyForced citizens to catch runaways, if not, $1,000 fine
12 Differences in the North and South Helped slaves get lawyersPeople would pitch in to buy slaves their freedom.Northern juries wouldn’t convict those of breaking the Fugitive Slave Law.Uncle Tom’s Cabin – written by Harriet Beecher Stowe.Laid out the cruelties of slavery for the first time.Fugitive Slave Law of 1850Differences in the North and South
13 More Problems Dred Scott Case, 1857: Scott was taken to the north by his owner to live for about 5 years. Then he was taken back to Missouri.When the owner died, Scott sued for his freedom in the Supreme Court.Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled the following:Slaves are not citizens, so they can’t sue.Slaves are property & can be taken anywhere.Because the 5th Amendment protected property, Congress could not ban slavery from any territory.The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
14 States’ rights is the idea that each state had the right to determine whether or not to follow federal laws.Southerners supported states’ rights. They believed that they had the right to own slaves and even secede, or leave the Union, if they desired.Cause #3 States’ RightsUnited States Law
15 Texas believed that the states should be able to make their own political, economic, and social decision with minimal federal government interference.Cause #3 States’ RightsUnited States Law
16 Northerners did not support states’ rights Northerners did not support states’ rights. They believed the national government had final power.Cause #3 States’ RightsUnited States Law
17 Cause #4 TariffsA tariff is a tax on imported goods.Northerners felt the federal government had the power to make laws that applied to all states, including imposing taxes.
18 Cause #4 TariffsSoutherners were also angry at Congress using its power to impose taxes on the South’s agricultural products.They felt that any federal tax restricted the rights of the individual states.Texans were for low tariffs to continue to trade cotton with European nations and southern sates produced 80% of the world’s supply of cotton.
19 Cause #5 Election of 1860When Republican Abraham Lincoln won the Election of 1860, Southerners believed that their rights would no longer be respected.Many southerners believed it was time to leave the Union.
20 Cause #5 SecessionAfter Lincoln’s election, eleven southern states eventually seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.Texas’s lawmakers voted to secede by a vote of 166 to 8, and the people of Texas voted for secession by a margin of more than 3 to 1.
21 Election of 1860 & Secession Let’s review the main causes of the Civil War:SouthNorth1.Sectionalism2. Slavery3. States’ rightsUnited States Law4. TariffsElection of 1860 & Secession