The issues that tore our nation apart Causes of the Civil War
Cause #1 Sectionalism North = Union South = Confederacy
Sectionalism Sectionalism – the excessive devotion to local interests and customs to a region of a nation. The intense feelings of sectionalism further divided the country into two separate sections- North and South. North South
Cause #1Cause #1 Sectionalism Prior to the Civil War, the United States was not really united. Our country was more like two separate countries sharing the same land. North South
Cause #1Cause #1 Sectionalism The North had industry, large cities, a diverse population, and favored the politics of the Republican party which supported the abolition of slavery.
Cause #1Cause #1 Sectionalism Southerners were especially loyal to their section. They thought of themselves... –as citizens of their own state first, –as Southerners second, –and as U.S. citizens third.
Cause #2 Slavery Slavery was a cause of the Civil War for two reasons. –#1. The South viewed slavery as a necessity to maintaining economic wealth. –Texas believed that slavery was vital to the economy. –However, many people in the North viewed slavery as evil and unconstitutional.
Cause #2 Slavery #2. Slavery was not just a moral issue but a political issue as well. –Which ever section of the U.S, North or South, had more states would have more power in Congress.
Cause #2 Slavery Both Northerners and Southerners fought fiercely over the moral and political issue of slavery. If the U.S. had been founded without slavery, then the following causes of the Civil War may have never been issues.
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 Required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves. It was now a CRIME to help runaway slaves even in the North. This made many people in the North very angry. More Problems
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 – Differences in the North and South South: –Judges could get $10 for each runaway slave –Slaves were denied a trial by jury & the right to testify –Forced citizens to catch runaways, if not, $1,000 fine
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 Differences in the North and South North: Helped slaves get lawyers People would pitch in to buy slaves their freedom. Northern juries wouldn’t convict those of breaking the Fugitive Slave Law. Uncle Tom’s Cabin – written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. –Laid out the cruelties of slavery for the first time.
More Problems, 1857:Dred Scott Case, 1857: –Scott was taken to the by his owner to live for about 5 years. Then he was taken back to. –Scott was taken to the north by his owner to live for about 5 years. Then he was taken back to Missouri. –When the died, Scott for his freedom in the Supreme Court. –When the owner died, Scott sued for his freedom in the Supreme Court. Roger Taney ruled the following: –Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled the following: 1.Slaves are not, so they can’t. 1.Slaves are not citizens, so they can’t sue. 2.Slaves are & can be taken anywhere. 2.Slaves are property & can be taken anywhere. 3.Because the 5 th Amendment protected Congress could not slavery from any territory. 3.Because the 5 th Amendment protected property, Congress could not ban slavery from any territory. 4.The Missouri Compromise was 4.The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
Cause #3 States’ Rights States’ rights is the idea that each state had the right to determine whether or not to follow federal laws. Southerners supported states’ rights. They believed that they had the right to own slaves and even secede, or leave the Union, if they desired. United States Law
Cause #3 States’ Rights Texas believed that the states should be able to make their own political, economic, and social decision with minimal federal government interference. United States Law
Cause #3 States’ Rights Northerners did not support states’ rights. They believed the national government had final power. United States Law
Cause #4 Tariffs A tariff is a tax on imported goods. Northerners felt the federal government had the power to make laws that applied to all states, including imposing taxes.
Cause #4 Tariffs Southerners were also angry at Congress using its power to impose taxes on the South’s agricultural products. They felt that any federal tax restricted the rights of the individual states. Texans were for low tariffs to continue to trade cotton with European nations and southern sates produced 80% of the world’s supply of cotton.
Cause #5 Election of 1860 When Republican Abraham Lincoln won the Election of 1860, Southerners believed that their rights would no longer be respected. Many southerners believed it was time to leave the Union.
Cause #5 Secession After Lincoln’s election, southern states eventually from the Union and formed the.After Lincoln’s election, eleven southern states eventually seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. Texas’s voted to secede by a vote of 166 to 8, and the people of Texas voted for by a margin of more than 3 to 1.Texas’s lawmakers voted to secede by a vote of 166 to 8, and the people of Texas voted for secession by a margin of more than 3 to 1.
Let’s review the main causes of the Civil War: 3. States’ rights 5.Election of 1860 & Secession United States Law 2. Slavery SouthNorth1.Sectionalism 4. Tariffs