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Study Guide: Ancient Greece

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1 Study Guide: Ancient Greece

2 How did the geography influence the rise of civilization in the city states of ancient Greece ?

3 Peloponnesus peninsula and islands; divided by bays, inlets, seas an rugged mts isolate people from each other, so tightly knit communities emerged differing from each other. Sea trade developed. Mild winters and hot sunny summers allow crops all year: olive, vineyards, grain. Extensive contact with other cultures for trade led to spread of Grecian ideas.

4 What two trading cultures first developed in ancient Greece ?

5 Minoan and Mycenaens

6 What was significant in the history of the Minoans and the Mycenaens ?

7 Developed on island of Crete ;Shipbuilders, extensive trade, ; Mycenaens build fortresses on hilltops, had colonies. 1st to speak Greek; VASES

8 What is a description of the early polis of ancient Greece ?

9 In dark ages small groups together for protection and stability
In dark ages small groups together for protection and stability. They are a city state: built around fortress on a hill = acropolis, walls surround town, farmers outside of walls, had an agora= market and center of trade, shipping , political and religious assemblies = people expected to participate; colonies under Grecian control turned into city states. HUGE TRADERS

10 What was the developmental progression of democracy in ancient Greece ?

11 Kings, oligarchies, tyrants and then democracy

12 How was Athens democratic government organized and run ?

13 A council of 500 citizens chosen randomly every year proposed new laws; an assembly of all citizens met every 9 days to vote on laws; law courts had juries of citizens to interpret laws and rule on some cases. More citizens could participate once they moved to paying for council and jury service. Citizen participation did not include women, slaves, metics, children.

14 Who were some of the most famous leaders of ancient Grecian city-states ?

15 Draco, Solon, Peisisstratus, Cleisthenes, Pericles (golden age: expanded democracy, strengthen protection with sea wall and navy; beautiful buldings - parthenon

16 What was the purpose of Greek myths and what myths and Gods were most important to Greeks ?

17 Explain how world works; stories of heroes and gods creates a common history and understanding; Zeus: father of all Greek Gods set standards of justice and made sure humans and gods followed them and controlled weather and used weather to punish; Poseidon = god of the sea; Hera goddess of marriage; Apollo god of light, health etc.

18 Temples built at; Olympia for Zeus; Delphi for Apollo

19 What forms of literature did ancient Greeks develop and who are some of the most well known contributors and their lasting works ?

20 Epic Poetry – Homer Illiad and Odyssey

21 Lyric poetry – Sappho

22 Fables – Aesop – Ants and the Grasshopper, Tortoise and the Hare

23 Tragedies – Sophocles – Antigone

24 Comedies -

25 What characterized the Persian empire and its’ relationship with Greece ?

26 Persian Empire expanded into Greek states; leaders as Cyrus the Great, Darius, Xerxes played important roles.

27 Cyrus; let people keep customs preventing rebellion

28 Darius organized empire into 20 provinces and governed with satraps as governors, built roads, filled cities with great works – angry when several Greek cities rebelled and Darius put down but wanted revenge led to Persian Wars 1st began as Persia sailed to Marathon – runner goes to Athens to say Greeks won, runs 26 miles. Under Xerxes Sparta and Athens join to fight Persia; Thermopylae, Persia wins and burns Athens; Salamis Athens win, all over at Plataea and Persians defeated.

29 Describe the military society of Sparta

30 Boys and Men in Sparta 4. physical strength training to bear healthy
1. only healthy newborns allowed to live a. early age trained to be soldiers 2. very physical training a. endured hardships too 1. no shoes, little food 3. ages lived in army barracks a. few family visits 4. in army until age 60 5. self discipline and obedience emphasized a. deprivation made strength Girls and Women in Sparta 1. more rights than other Greeks 2. men away in military = ran house, some owned land 3. slaves did spinning and weaving 4. physical strength training to bear healthy children

31 What system of government did Sparta use ?

32 2 Kings led army; elected officials had more power than kings and managed foreign affairs and daily life – very strict control of slaves to prevent rebellion

33 What was the difference in roles of men and women in Athenian society ?

34 A. Boys and Men in Athens 1. physical training and education
2. 2 years in army ages 18-20 3. humanities emphasized 4. wealthy had tutors for philos., public speaking, astronomy etc. 5. poor could read and write, but mostly farmed or became craftsmen B. Girls and Women in Athens 1. little to no educ 2. few rights compared to other city states a. no service in govt b. no leaving homes c. no ownership of property d. no disobedience to husbands or dads

35 What were the key battles and strategies of Sparta and Athens in war against each other and their power struggle ?


37 A league after the Persian wars was made = Delian League, but Athens took over and forced others to join, using money to build Athens, as more cities controlled so they had control of trade routes ultimatum from Sparta and allies – free all cities or war – they went to war: lasted at least 27 years = Pelopponnesian War: Athenians told to go into city walls – plague struck, starvation from grain destroyed by Spartans – eventually Athens surrenders. Stalemate of land vs. naval forces

38 What marked the decline of Athenian democracy ?

39 Spartan’ victory at first destroyed Athenian democracy and put tyrants in power. King allowed the democracy to be restored but citizens did not participate and became suspicious of each other.

40 What influence did Alexander the Great have on Greece and Greece upon Alexander the Great’s empire ?

41 D. Spreading Greek Culture
1. largest empire world had ever seen 2. modeled cities after Greecian cities 3. temples, theaters 4. encouraged Greeks to settle a. art, lit and sci of Greece spread 5. encouraged conquered to keep own customs and traditions 6. led to Hellenistic culture a. like Greek,but with Persian, Egyptian Syrian and other cultures ideas

42 He admired greek life and was a student of Aristotle
He admired greek life and was a student of Aristotle. Built cities on greek model, left Greeks to rule, greecians become teachers of science, art, literature and philosophy in the western world; greeks within Egypt and Persia allowed to live Greek, ; his city of Alexandria and its museum and library became center of arts, literature, math, philosophy

43 How can the Hellenistic era best be described ?

44 Greek like

45 What characterized Grecian Art ?

46 Realism of human body statues

47 What was the purpose of the Grecian Olympics ?

48 honor gods in sports festival

49 What style of architecture was used by Greeks ?

50 Temples of columns

51 What are well known written works of the Greeks ?

52 Herodotus – history, Asristophanes – comedies, Thucydides – Peoloponisian war,

53 What distinguishes the philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle from each other ?

54 Asking questions, trial and death; school and wrote the Republic; live in moderation not greed

55 Who were some of the most well known scientists and mathematicians of ancient Greece ?

56 Archimedes, Pythagoras, Aristarchus, Hippocrates, Euclid

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