2How did the geography influence the rise of civilization in the city states of ancient Greece ?
3Peloponnesus peninsula and islands; divided by bays, inlets, seas an rugged mts isolate people from each other, so tightly knit communities emerged differing from each other. Sea trade developed. Mild winters and hot sunny summers allow crops all year: olive, vineyards, grain. Extensive contact with other cultures for trade led to spread of Grecian ideas.
4What two trading cultures first developed in ancient Greece ?
6What was significant in the history of the Minoans and the Mycenaens ?
7Developed on island of Crete ;Shipbuilders, extensive trade, ; Mycenaens build fortresses on hilltops, had colonies. 1st to speak Greek; VASES
8What is a description of the early polis of ancient Greece ?
9In dark ages small groups together for protection and stability In dark ages small groups together for protection and stability. They are a city state: built around fortress on a hill = acropolis, walls surround town, farmers outside of walls, had an agora= market and center of trade, shipping , political and religious assemblies = people expected to participate; colonies under Grecian control turned into city states. HUGE TRADERS
10What was the developmental progression of democracy in ancient Greece ?
12How was Athens democratic government organized and run ?
13A council of 500 citizens chosen randomly every year proposed new laws; an assembly of all citizens met every 9 days to vote on laws; law courts had juries of citizens to interpret laws and rule on some cases. More citizens could participate once they moved to paying for council and jury service. Citizen participation did not include women, slaves, metics, children.
14Who were some of the most famous leaders of ancient Grecian city-states ?
15Draco, Solon, Peisisstratus, Cleisthenes, Pericles (golden age: expanded democracy, strengthen protection with sea wall and navy; beautiful buldings - parthenon
16What was the purpose of Greek myths and what myths and Gods were most important to Greeks ?
17Explain how world works; stories of heroes and gods creates a common history and understanding; Zeus: father of all Greek Gods set standards of justice and made sure humans and gods followed them and controlled weather and used weather to punish; Poseidon = god of the sea; Hera goddess of marriage; Apollo god of light, health etc.
18Temples built at; Olympia for Zeus; Delphi for Apollo
19What forms of literature did ancient Greeks develop and who are some of the most well known contributors and their lasting works ?
25What characterized the Persian empire and its’ relationship with Greece ?
26Persian Empire expanded into Greek states; leaders as Cyrus the Great, Darius, Xerxes played important roles.
27Cyrus; let people keep customs preventing rebellion
28Darius organized empire into 20 provinces and governed with satraps as governors, built roads, filled cities with great works – angry when several Greek cities rebelled and Darius put down but wanted revenge led to Persian Wars1st began as Persia sailed to Marathon – runner goes to Athens to say Greeks won, runs 26 miles.Under Xerxes Sparta and Athens join to fight Persia; Thermopylae, Persia wins and burns Athens; Salamis Athens win, all over at Plataea and Persians defeated.
30Boys and Men in Sparta 4. physical strength training to bear healthy 1. only healthy newborns allowed to livea. early age trained to be soldiers2. very physical traininga. endured hardships too1. no shoes, little food3. ages lived in army barracksa. few family visits4. in army until age 605. self discipline and obedience emphasizeda. deprivation made strengthGirls and Women in Sparta1. more rights than other Greeks2. men away in military = ran house, someowned land3. slaves did spinning and weaving4. physical strength training to bear healthychildren
322 Kings led army; elected officials had more power than kings and managed foreign affairs and daily life – very strict control of slaves to prevent rebellion
33What was the difference in roles of men and women in Athenian society ?
34A. Boys and Men in Athens 1. physical training and education 2. 2 years in army ages 18-203. humanities emphasized4. wealthy had tutors for philos., publicspeaking, astronomy etc.5. poor could read and write, but mostlyfarmed or became craftsmenB. Girls and Women in Athens1. little to no educ2. few rights compared to other city statesa. no service in govtb. no leaving homesc. no ownership of propertyd. no disobedience to husbands or dads
35What were the key battles and strategies of Sparta and Athens in war against each other and their power struggle ?
37A league after the Persian wars was made = Delian League, but Athens took over and forced others to join, using money to build Athens, as more cities controlled so they had control of trade routes ultimatum from Sparta and allies – free all cities or war – they went to war: lasted at least 27 years = Pelopponnesian War: Athenians told to go into city walls – plague struck, starvation from grain destroyed by Spartans – eventually Athens surrenders. Stalemate of land vs. naval forces
39Spartan’ victory at first destroyed Athenian democracy and put tyrants in power. King allowed the democracy to be restored but citizens did not participate and became suspicious of each other.
40What influence did Alexander the Great have on Greece and Greece upon Alexander the Great’s empire ?
41D. Spreading Greek Culture 1. largest empire world had ever seen2. modeled cities after Greecian cities3. temples, theaters4. encouraged Greeks to settlea. art, lit and sci of Greece spread5. encouraged conquered to keep owncustoms and traditions6. led to Hellenistic culturea. like Greek,but with Persian, EgyptianSyrian and other cultures ideas
42He admired greek life and was a student of Aristotle He admired greek life and was a student of Aristotle. Built cities on greek model, left Greeks to rule, greecians become teachers of science, art, literature and philosophy in the western world; greeks within Egypt and Persia allowed to live Greek, ; his city of Alexandria and its museum and library became center of arts, literature, math, philosophy