Presentation on theme: "Piraeus The Long Walls of Athens. Early History Piraeus: Greek for “the place over the passage” (roughly) Supposedly has been inhabited since the 26 th."— Presentation transcript:
Early History Piraeus: Greek for “the place over the passage” (roughly) Supposedly has been inhabited since the 26 th century B.C. Approximately 7-8 km (about 4 or 5 miles) southwest of Athens Originally was an island known as Munychia, was also known as Halipedon (“salt field”) Hippias, son of Peisistratis, fortifies Munychia in late 6 th century
Piraeus vs. Phaleron Phaleron Bay, located approximately 7km almost due south of Athens, was original harbor of Athens but was a shallow, sandy beach. Piraeus was deep with three natural harbors: Kantharos, Munychia and Zea. In mid 5 th century land passage to Piraeus became secure. During archonship of Themistocles, 493/4, Piraeus fortified as commercial port of Athens with early walls. Later on, in mid 5 th century, Hippodamos of Miletos and “Grid Plan” laid out for Piraeus
The Three Harbors neosoikoi ("ships' houses") built in harbors to house triremes (War ships). Kantharos. Largest harbor, northwestern Piraeus. Commercial center. Housed 94 triremes. Tomb of Themistocles Zea: Southern port, main war ship harbor. Housed 196 triremes. Munychia: Smallest harbor, eastern Piraeus. Housed 82 triremes. Piraeus home to many metics, representative of cultural and economic importance of Piraeus to Athenian trade
The “Wooden Wall” and The Long Walls 483, Laurium silver strike, Themistocles’ advice and the Oracle of Delphi, “Wall of Wood” Persian Wars, battles of Artemisium and Salamis, role of Themistocles After Persian Wars (479/8, Thuc.) Athens rebuilds and fortifies herself. Themistocles distracts Spartans while Long Walls built Built hastily but surround Athens down to Piraeus and even Phaleron as well Athens establishes Delian League, 479, using the navy and port of Piraeus as leverage over other poleis
Piraeus, Plague, Pericles, and the Peloponnesian War Thucydides 2.13, Pericles urges Athenians to become “an island” as war approaches with Sparta Athenians move into the Long and Phaleric Walls in 431, Peloponnesian War begins Plague enters Athens from the Piraeus in 430, things begin to go downhill for Athens After Pericles’ death (429), fleet misused and Athenians loses the War in 404 Long Walls torn down and Spartan control enforced over Piraeus, much of navy captured or destroyed
Why do you build me up, just to knock me back down? In 393, democracy reinstated and Thirty Tyrants thrown out. Walls rebuilt by Conon. Reconstruction continues… Second Athenian League established in 378, Piraeus becomes main port yet again, but former empire never realized Total number housed at Piraeus in later 4 th century believed to be 372. Court in Phreatto? 86 B.C. Lucius Cornellius Sulla invades, defeats and levels Piraeus
The Piraeus Today Destruction complete in 395 A.D. by Gauls and was even renamed Porto Leon (“Lion’s Port) for marble Lion statue Reduced to small fishing village up until Greek Independence in 1832 when Athens was made capital Industry, Corinth Canal (1893) and establishment of Port authorities Piraeus sees huge population explosion. Today Piraeus acts as a major center for Greek trade and commerce. 3 rd largest port in the world for passenger transportation, 47 th in cargo traffic
Bibliography Camp, John M. The Archaeology of Athens. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001. DASE. Susan Hoftra’s personal slide. “Trireme ‘Olympias’ at Piraeus”. 8 Jul. 2000 http://dase.laits.utexas.edu/media/classics/thumbnail/00070805 13_100.jpg Green, Peter. Ancient Greece: An Illustrated History. New York: The Viking Press, 1973 Stathakis, Stathis. “The Piraeus Port” Trekearth.com. 27 Aug. 2006 http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Europe/Greece/Attica/Attiki/Pir aeus/photo590499.htm http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Europe/Greece/Attica/Attiki/Pir aeus/photo590499.htm Pomeroy, Sarah B. Ancient Greece. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Thucydides. Trans. Crawley, Richard. 1874. Ed. Strassler, Robert B. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc. 1996. The World of Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
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