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THE BIOSPHERE Ch. 3 p.62-83. What is Ecology? Study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment. Study of interactions.

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Presentation on theme: "THE BIOSPHERE Ch. 3 p.62-83. What is Ecology? Study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment. Study of interactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE BIOSPHERE Ch. 3 p.62-83

2 What is Ecology? Study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment. Study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment. Ernst Haeckel – coined term Ecology in 1866 Greek word oikos means house Natures housescome in many sizes

3 Levels of Organization Ecologist study organisms ranging from the various levels of organization: Ecologist study organisms ranging from the various levels of organization: Species Species Population Population Community Community Ecosystem Ecosystem Biome Biome Biosphere Biosphere

4 Organism Species Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring

5 Population group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area. group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area. Population

6 Community Community Community an assemblage of different populations that live together an assemblage of different populations that live together

7 Ecosystem Ecosystem Collection of organisms that live in a place with the nonliving environment Collection of organisms that live in a place with the nonliving environment

8 Ecosystem Biome Group of ecosystems with the same climate and dominant commuties Group of ecosystems with the same climate and dominant commuties Tropical rain forest Tropical dry forest Tropical savanna Temperate woodland and shrubland Desert Temperate grassland Boreal forest (Taiga) Northwestern coniferous forest Temperate forest Mountains and ice caps Tundra

9 Ecosystem Biosphere The part of the earth where life exists including land, water, air, and atmosphere The part of the earth where life exists including land, water, air, and atmosphere

10 Three Ecological Methods of Study 1.Observing What species live here?What species live here? How many individuals of species are there?How many individuals of species are there? 2.Experimenting Used to test a hypothesisUsed to test a hypothesis Ex - making artificial environments in the labEx - making artificial environments in the lab 3.Modeling Making models to gain insight into complex phenomenaMaking models to gain insight into complex phenomena Ex. - Global warmingEx. - Global warming

11 Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs Autotrophs – make their own food so they are called PRODUCERS Autotrophs – make their own food so they are called PRODUCERS Heterotrophs – get their food from another source so they are called CONSUMERS Heterotrophs – get their food from another source so they are called CONSUMERS

12 Two Main forms of Energy for Autotrophs Sunlight Sunlight The main source of energy for life on earth The main source of energy for life on earth Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Chemical Chemical Some organisms such as bacteria, rely on the energy stored in inorganic compounds Some organisms such as bacteria, rely on the energy stored in inorganic compounds Chemosynthesis Chemosynthesis

13 Types of Consumers Herbivores- only eat plantsCarnivores - only eat meat Omnivores Eat plants and meat Detritivores and Decomposers Feeds on plant and animal remains

14 How does Energy flow through an Ecosystem? Energy flows through an ecosystem in ONE direction, Energy flows through an ecosystem in ONE direction, sun or chemicals sun or chemicals Autotrophs Autotrophs heterotrophs heterotrophs

15 Energy Flow in Ecosystems:

16 Feeding Relationships Food Chain – steps of organisms transferring energy by eating & being eaten Food Chain – steps of organisms transferring energy by eating & being eaten Food Web – network of all the food chains in an ecosystem Food Web – network of all the food chains in an ecosystem

17 Food Web

18 Ecological Pyramids Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Pyramid of Numbers Trophic Level – each step in a food chain or food web Trophic Level – each step in a food chain or food web

19 Pyramid of Numbers - relative number of individuals at each trophic level

20 Pyramid of Biomass - amount of potential food available for each trophic level

21 Pyramid of Energy - amount of energy available at each trophic level Most of the energy is used by the organisms for life processes Most of the energy is used by the organisms for life processes Some of the energy is lost as heat Some of the energy is lost as heat Only 10% of the energy from each trophic level is passed on to the next level Only 10% of the energy from each trophic level is passed on to the next level

22 How does Matter move through an ecosystem? Unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within & between ecosystems Unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within & between ecosystems Nutrients are passed between Nutrients are passed between organisms & the environment through biogeochemical cycles Biogeochemical Cycles: Biogeochemical Cycles: Bio –life Bio –life Geo – Earth Geo – Earth Chemo – chemical Chemo – chemical 1.WATER CYCLE 2.NUTRIENT CYCLES: a)CARBON CYCLE b)NITROGEN CYCLE c)PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

23 Why are nutrients important ? 95% of your body is made of… 1)OXYGEN 2)CARBON 3)HYDROGEN 4)NITROGEN Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions.

24 Availibility of nutrients If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organisms growth. It is called a limiting nutrient If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organisms growth. It is called a limiting nutrient When a limiting nutrient is dumped into a lake or pond, an algal bloom occurs and can disrupt the ecosystem When a limiting nutrient is dumped into a lake or pond, an algal bloom occurs and can disrupt the ecosystem

25 THE WATER CYCLE

26 CARBON CYCLE (see fig.3-13) 4 PROCESSES MOVE CARBON THROUGH ITS CYCLE: 1)Biological 2)Geochemical 3)Mixed biochemical 4)Human Activity CO 2

27 NITROGEN CYCLE (see fig.3- 14) Nitrogen-containing nutrients in the biosphere include: 1)Ammonia (NH 3 ) 2)Nitrate (NO 3 - ) 3)Nitrite (NO 2 - ) ORGANISMS NEED NITROGEN TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS FOR BUILDING PROTEINS!!! N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 N0 3- & N0 2 -

28 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE (see fig.3-15) PHOSPHORUS FORMS PART OF IMPORTANT LIFE-SUSTAINING MOLECULES (ex. DNA & RNA)


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