13Transmission of HIVBloodSemenVaginal SecretionsBreast milk
14People at Highest Risk for HIV Infection Those who engage in unprotected sexThose with sexual partners who participate in high risk activities (anal sex)Those who share needles with infected intravenous drug useInfants born to mothers infected with HIVThose who received blood transfusions between
19From 1981 through 2005, a total of 956,019 cases of AIDS were reported to CDC. Of the 946,578 adults and adolescents reported with AIDS, 524,607 (55%) have died. Of the 9,441 children younger than 13 years reported with AIDS, 5,514 (58%) have died. Slides containing information on leading causes of death in the United States, including HIV infection and AIDS, are available at
20This slide shows the distribution of AIDS cases, by age at diagnosis and sex. From 1981 through 2005, a total of 956,019 cases of AIDS have been reported to CDC: 81% were in males and 19% in females. Most of the cases were diagnosed when the men and women were 25–44 years of age.
21For male adults and adolescents, in 2005 the AIDS diagnosis rate (AIDS cases per 100,000) for non-Hispanic blacks (95.1) was more than 7 times higher than for non-Hispanic whites (12.1) and more than twice as high as the rate for Hispanics (36.0).Relatively few cases were diagnosed among Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native males, although the rate for American Indian/Alaska Native males (14.3) was higher than that for non-Hispanic white males.The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.
22For female adults and adolescents, in 2005 the AIDS diagnosis rate (AIDS cases per 100,000) for non-Hispanic blacks (45.5) was nearly 23 times higher than that for non-Hispanic whites (2.0).The estimated number of AIDS cases diagnosed among females in 2005 was similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, but the rate for Hispanics (11.2) was more than 5 times higher than for non-Hispanic whites.Relatively few cases were diagnosed among Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native females, although the rate for American Indian/Alaska Natives (4.4) was more than 2 times the rate for non-Hispanic white females.The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.
23The pie chart on the left illustrates the distribution of AIDS cases reported in 2005 among racial/ethnic groups. The pie chart on the right shows the distribution of the U.S. population (excluding U.S. dependent areas) in 2005.Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by the AIDS epidemic in comparison with their proportional distribution in the general population.In 2005, non-Hispanic blacks made up 13% of the population but accounted for 50% of reported AIDS cases in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Hispanics made up 14% of the population but accounted for 18% of reported AIDS cases.Non-Hispanic whites made up 68% of the U.S. population but accounted for 30% of reported AIDS cases.More information on the HIV/AIDS epidemic and HIV prevention among blacks and Hispanics is available in a CDC fact sheet at
24Of AIDS cases diagnosed in 2005 for male adults and adolescents, 58% were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and 18% were attributed to injection drug use. Approximately 16% of cases were attributed to high-risk heterosexual contact and 7% were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use.Most (70%) of the AIDS cases diagnosed in 2005 for female adults and adolescents were attributed to high-risk heterosexual contact, and 27% were attributed to injection drug use.The data have been adjusted for reporting delays and cases without risk factor information were proportionally redistributed.
25TreatmentNo cureAnti-viral therapy suppresses replication of the HIV virus in the bodyHAART = Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (AIDs Cocktail)
26SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF STDs’ WOMENPelvic PainBleeding from vagina between periodsBurning or itching around the vaginaPain deep inside the vagina during intercourseWOMEN AND MENAbnormal discharge from penis or vaginaA burning sensation during urinationSores, bumps, or blisters near mouth, rectum, or genitalsFlu like feelingsRedness and swelling in the throatSwelling in the groin area
39Cervical Cancer Prevention The vaccine now in use requires a series of 3 shots over a one-year period. It has been approved by the FDA and should be covered by most insurance. The American Cancer Society recommends the vaccine for girls when they are 11 or 12, before they begin having sex. It is also recommended as a “catch up” for women aged 13 to 18, and that women age 19 to 26 talk to their doctor about whether the vaccine is right for them. It is important to realize that the vaccine doesn’t protect against all cancer-causing types of HPV, so Pap tests are still needed.The second way to prevent cancer of the cervix is to have a Pap test. The Pap test can detect HPV infection and pre-cancers. Treatment of these problems can stop cervical cancer before it develops fully into an invasive cancer.
46Sexually Transmitted Disease Risk Factors Multiple Sexual PartnersFalse Sense of SafetyAbsence of signs and symptomsUntreated conditionsImpaired judgment (Alcohol and Drugs)Lack of immunityBody piercingValue judgmentsDenial
47PREVENTING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES A. Continual Education and Treatment1. Stigma2. Judgmental AttitudesPracticing Safe Sex1. Abstinence2. Know partners sexual history (high risk activities)3. Use condoms with spermicides
48PREVENTING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES 4. Barriers to safe sexa. Denialb. Feelings of quilt and being uncomfortable about being sexualc. Succumbing to social and peer pressure to be sexualC. Effective Communication Skills1. Talk to partner about sexual intercourse2. Think ahead of time what you will say if your partner wants to have sex and you don’t .3. What if partner offended that you want to know sexual history?