Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Immune System STD rates by age. Figure 14.1 14-1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Immune System STD rates by age. Figure 14.1 14-1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:


2 Immune System

3 STD rates by age. Figure 14.1 14-1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

4 HIV/AIDS “HIV has inflicted the single greatest reversal in human development in modern history” UNAIDS Report for 2008


6 HIV- “an absolute parasite”


8 Course of HIV Infection AIDS = CD4 cell count under 200.

9  HIV attacks lymphocytes (white blood cells) called T-cells.  The virus penetrates T-cells and forces them to make copies of HIV which causes the T-cell to die.  Less T-cells result in a weakened immune system and risk for opportunistic diseases.  HIV infection and certain opportunistic diseases or HIV infection and a low T-cell count (200 or less) will result in an AIDS diagnosis. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

10 HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus = Retrovirus that attacks and destroys the immune system

11 AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Opportunistic Infections = common bacteria, fungus, viruses,etc. that usually do not have the opportunity to infect people with healthy immune systems

12 Sore throat Mouth Sores Muscle stiffness and aches Headaches Diarrhea Swollen Lymph Nodes Fever Fatigue Rash Frequent vaginal yeast infections

13  Blood  Semen  Vaginal Secretions  Breast milk

14  Those who engage in unprotected sex  Those with sexual partners who participate in high risk activities (anal sex)  Those who share needles with infected intravenous drug use  Infants born to mothers infected with HIV  Those who received blood transfusions between 1977-1985

15 Safe  Casual contact.  Hugging.  Eating after.  Massage.  Masturbation.  Insects. Unsafe  Vaginal sex.  Anal sex.  Oral sex.  Deep kissing.  Multiple partners.  Sharing needles. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

16 You should be tested if:  You have had any STD.  Shared drug needles.  Had sex with a prostitute.  Had sex with a man who had sex with another man.  Had unprotected sex with three or more partners. Remember that the test looks for HIV antibodies. It could take 3 to 6 months before antibodies appear in the blood. A person should have 6 months with no risk behavior before a test can be accurate. For more information contact your local health department. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

17 facts








25  No cure  Anti-viral therapy suppresses replication of the HIV virus in the body  HAART = Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (AIDs Cocktail)

26 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF STDs’ WOMEN Pelvic Pain Bleeding from vagina between periods Burning or itching around the vagina Pain deep inside the vagina during intercourse WOMEN AND MEN Abnormal discharge from penis or vagina A burning sensation during urination Sores, bumps, or blisters near mouth, rectum, or genitals Flu like feelings Redness and swelling in the throat Swelling in the groin area

27 Bacterial (curable)  Chlamydia  Gonorrhea  Syphilis Viral (incurable)  Genital herpes  Genital warts  Hepatitis B  AIDS © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


29  Transmission  Passed during direct sexual contact and hand to eye.  Incubation  Poorly defined, probably 7-14 days or longer.  Typical Symptoms  Up to 80% of women and 50% of men have no symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they are often mild. Symptoms include discharge, itching and burning, painful urination, and flu-like symptoms.  Diagnosis  Culture tests of discharge collected from around the cervix and in the urethra. Reliable and affordable.  Treatment  Curable with certain antibiotics (not penicillin).  Danger  If untreated, can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

30  Transmission  Direct contact between mucous membranes, i.e., genitals, anus, and mouth. Contaminated fingers can pass organism to the eye. People can not get gonorrhea from objects.  Incubation  Usually 2-14 days.  Typical Symptoms  Genitals, anus, throat, and eyes can be infected. Symptoms include discharge, burning and itching, painful urination, or a mild sore throat. Up to 80% of women and 20% of men have no symptoms.  Diagnosis  Microscopic observation of discharge. Culture from site.  Treatment  Curable with antibiotics. Some strains may become resistant.  Danger  Can cause PID and sterility in men and women. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


32  Transmission  Direct contact with infectious sore or lesionous rashes.  Incubation  1 to 12 weeks before primary stage.  Typical Symptoms  Primary: painless chancre sore at site of entry of germ and lasts 1–5 weeks. If not treated, leads to secondary syphilis.  Secondary: 2 weeks to 6 months after chancre. Rash, flu-like symptoms, patchy hair loss. Secondary will go away without treatment, but will lead to latent syphilis.  Latent: no longer infectious to carry bacteria and lead to tertiary.  Tertiary Stage: 3 to 40 years later, damage to body organs such as the brain and heart, paralysis and death.  Diagnosis  Physical examination, microscopic test from sore, blood tests.  Treatment  Cured with antibiotics. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.




36  Transmission  Direct contact with warts in genital area. May be transmitted without visible warts.  Incubation  Range from 1-8 months.  Typical Symptoms  Flat or round bumps with cauliflowerlike appearance occurring on moist areas of genitals and anus. Many have no symptoms.  Diagnosis  Visual examination, tissue cultures. Pap smears can detect warts not visible. Common cause of cervical cancer.  Treatment  Freezing, laser, chemical prep, and surgery. May not “cure” the infection.  Danger  HPV causes cervical cancer. Pap smears are important. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.



39 The vaccine now in use requires a series of 3 shots over a one-year period. It has been approved by the FDA and should be covered by most insurance. The American Cancer Society recommends the vaccine for girls when they are 11 or 12, before they begin having sex. It is also recommended as a “catch up” for women aged 13 to 18, and that women age 19 to 26 talk to their doctor about whether the vaccine is right for them. It is important to realize that the vaccine doesn’t protect against all cancer- causing types of HPV, so Pap tests are still needed. The second way to prevent cancer of the cervix is to have a Pap test. The Pap test can detect HPV infection and pre-cancers. Treatment of these problems can stop cervical cancer before it develops fully into an invasive cancer. Cervical Cancer Prevention

40  Transmission  Direct contact with infectious blisters or sores usually on genitals, anus, or mouth. May also be passed through asymptomatic viral shedding.  Incubation  2-12 days  Typical Symptoms  Painful blisters or sores form, break, crust over, and heal in 2 to 4 weeks. Sores may reappear throughout life, but heal faster, are less painful and occur less frequently. Factors like stress, fatigue, and other illness may bring on reoccurrences.  Diagnosis  Visual examination and tissue culture.  Treatment  No cure at present time. Medications (acyclovir) used to relieve pain, shorten outbreak, or prevent infection in open sore.  Danger  Can be fatal to infants who acquire the disease. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.




44  Transmission  Vaginal, anal and oral sex, sharing needles, and mother to baby.  Incubation  1 – 9 months but people can carry the virus with no active infection (and spread to others)  Typical Symptoms  Most have none or mild flu-like feelings, itching, and joint pain. Eventually leads to liver enlargements and failure.  Diagnosis  Through a blood test.  Treatment  A vaccine is available.  Dangers  Progressive destruction of liver cells, cirrhosis, or liver cancer. © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


46 Sexually Transmitted Disease Risk Factors 1.Multiple Sexual Partners 2.False Sense of Safety 3.Absence of signs and symptoms 4.Untreated conditions 5.Impaired judgment (Alcohol and Drugs) 6.Lack of immunity 7.Body piercing 8.Value judgments 9.Denial

47 PREVENTING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES A. Continual Education and Treatment 1. Stigma 2. Judgmental Attitudes B.Practicing Safe Sex 1. Abstinence 2. Know partners sexual history (high risk activities) 3. Use condoms with spermicides

48 4. Barriers to safe sex a. Denial b. Feelings of quilt and being uncomfortable about being sexual c. Succumbing to social and peer pressure to be sexual C. Effective Communication Skills 1. Talk to partner about sexual intercourse 2. Think ahead of time what you will say if your partner wants to have sex and you don’t. 3. What if partner offended that you want to know sexual history? PREVENTING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Download ppt "Immune System STD rates by age. Figure 14.1 14-1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google