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Chapter 12: Absolutism to Upheaval

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1 Chapter 12: Absolutism to Upheaval
Unit Three Part Four

2 What is Happening Traditional political regimes (absolute monarchies) allowed no one to share power- Strong authority meant a strong country. The Enlightenment challenged that notion- (not the idea of strength, but the idea that some should lead without any qualification but birth.) and began to demand a voice in the creation of the laws that ruled them As this happens, countries will move from being identified directly with king- to full nationalism

3 Enlightened Despots Philosophes generally agreed that the best government came from a strong leader who ruled in best interest of the people (rather than himself- like xiv) Should use power FOR ideas of Enlightenment- freedom of thought, toleration etc… Philosophes did NOT advocate democracy (except Rousseau, and even other philosophes thought he was a bit off) did not believe that ordinary (poor) people were capable of governing themselves 3 prime examples

4 Frederick the Great of Prussia
Frederick II ( ) was well educated and sophisticated- fascinated by culture (to the eternal dismay of his soldier father) Admired French learning and wit- Required his nobles to speak French, and invited Voltaire to live at his court. Modernized the concept of the state by strengthening the bureaucracy, the law, and the army to run well- no matter whom was king. Called himself “first servant of state”

5 Reforms of Frederick Religious toleration (for RC and Jews) but protestants still controlled gov’t One law code for whole country- made torture illegal (except in cases of treason) Limited freedom of press/speech. Flaws- kept serfdom (though he did free his own) unequal tax system- favored Junkers in tax and gov’t to keep their support Promoted schools and education- but didn’t build many Reforms primarily intended to increase his power

6 Wars of Frederick Wanted to expand Prussia and make her a “great power”. Tried to keep wars small- and fight when he knew he could win. War of Austrian Succession- Maria Theresa kept her throne, but Prussia got Silesia and doubled its pop. Seven Years War- Prussia allied with England, managed to get a larger slice of Poland

7 Joseph II of Austria Background: Maria Theresa
1740 HRE Charles VI died with no male heir. Pragmatic Sanction: Charles VI had kings of France, Prussia, Russia and Poland swear that they would respect Maria Theresa as heir (tech a woman could not be HRE) But of course- when she inherited- everyone attacked (war of Aus. Succession). Biggest loss was Silesia to Prussia Made Maria Theresa conservative and cautious- used diplomacy (esp marriage of many children) rather than military to achieve goals

8 Maria’s Reforms- NOT Enlight. Despot
Centralize and strengthen gov’t (always an issue in Austria- and hard to do) Modernize army and bureaucracy Tried to mildly limit power of nobles over their serfs. Taxed nobles (in a limited way). Brought RC church under state control (No religious toleration)

9 Joseph II- reforms Joseph her oldest son: co- ruler from , ruled alone Boldly implemented Enlightenment reforms- freedoms speech & religion, legal reform, reduction of censorship. Abolished serfdom- taxed nobles Still absolutist- no consultation for new laws (perhaps why they failed) Serfs only freed if they paid rents in cash (which most couldn’t) Joseph expanded state schools, state hospitals, insane asylums, orphanages. Made German the “official” language to bring country together

10 Disappointment Reforms caused chaos throughout empire (Joseph has habit of “springing” them on people) and he was forced to put them down Died disillusioned- and his successors got rid of all reforms Austria lost multiple wars in this period- losing ground to Prussia and Russia- reform made them seem weak. French revolution freaked people out- made them reactionary

11 Catherine the Great- Russia
Oversaw the 2nd great phase of Russia’s Westernization German princess- married Tsar Peter III (not so bright- she had him killed) Admired Enlightenment ideas- but knew she needed nobles to rule Russia Probably least “enlightened” of despots (in terms of actual action) More that she wanted to be thought of as progressive (without actually BEING progressive) Refused to speak Russian- or even German, so great was her love of French culture. Corresponded for years with Voltaire- invited Diderot to Russia

12 Reform Not interested in Democracy- or a constitution (which might have limited her powers) Supported economic development of towns and cities, but not giving them political power. Supported serfdom Continued “Westernization” in architecture, music etc… Brought 1st printing presses to Russia. Allowed limited religious toleration (esp for Jews) Restricted torture Nobles benefitted most from her reforms- serfdom became even more repressive

13 Pugachev Rebellion Cossacks led a rebellion demanding an end to taxes, the draft, and for peasants to have the right to own their land. Catherine’s army crushed rebellion- executed Pugachev- and became even more oppressive This made Catherine realize how much she needed support of nobles (who were dominant force in army- generals etc…) Dissolved all their tax liabilities in and made it illegal for anyone BUT nobles to own land (Russia is becoming MORE feudal rather than more modern)

14 Expansion of Russia Catherine fought in South (Crimea) to gain access to the Black Sea (even warmer water port- access to Mediterranean- took land from Ottomans- which was popular with other Europeans) as well as land in West. Worked with Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa to partition Poland

15 War and Diplomacy 18th century a time of strong European Rivalries- some dynastic, some territorial (for Eng and Fr sometimes known as 2nd 100 years war) Everyone wanted to expand their territory, gathering up small bits that surrounded them- creating complicated, ever shifting alliances (will continue to be trend until wwi) Wars are bloodier b/c of more powerful weapons (muskets, bayonets) Sophisticated warfare was also more expensive- requiring larger % of national resources to be devoted to military (Prussia 80%)

16 Colonial Competition Tensions in Europe spread to Europe’s colonies- esp for England and France- because colonies were becoming vital for econ power. ½ of British, and 1/3 of French trade was with colonies North American colonies were the most heavily populated (esp by British who had 1.7 mil compared to 56,000 french) Caribbean Sugar most valuable single export. Conflicting land claims- esp over ports and trade rights with colony (both wanted right to trade with others- but others shouldn’t trade with theirs) Netherland and Spain also have colonies- but are in decline- Eng/Fr eyeing them….

17 War of Jenkins's Ear Spain alleged Eng. Abusing the treaty which had ended the War of Sp. Succession. (which allowed the British to control the asiento and 1 trade ship a year with Sp. Colonies) Spanish boarded a British ship and accused them of smuggling (they were) Cut off ear of officer- enrages Eng- they go to war with Spain Bleeds over into War of Austrian Succession

18 Seven Year’s War: French and Indian War
Russia/Austria/France vs. Prussia/England in Europe. (Eng vs. Fr. in North Amer) Fought over a variety of territorial issues- Prussia, Austria/Russia do most fighting in Euro (Poland) England and France fight in N. America and India Largest and most expensive war of 18th century

19 Treaty of Paris France lost trade rights in India (battle of Plessy)
Makes England the dominant colonial power in the world France loses all territory east of Mississippi including Canada. Kept West Indies (lost Louisiana to Spain- will get it back) Hurt them economically (trade down to 1/16 it was before war) and their pride- inspires them to support American colonists when they rebel

20 Partition of Poland Russia, Austria and Prussia
have all fought frequently over territory in Poland (they keep picking away at it). 1772, 1793, 1795 created a formal agreements to Partition- and make the country as a whole disappear. Claimed they were saving themselves from anarchy- both from having to fight- and because Poland is a bad influence as an area without a strong king. No such thing as “Poland” again until after WWI

21 The American Revolution
1st political movement inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment. Colonists were angry about tax hikes from British (to pay for defense in 7 years war- British thought Americans should be grateful) When Americans started fighting- the British did send troops- but they were busy elsewhere (never gave the war more than 4/10 of their attention) Agreed to pull out in Treaty of Paris 1783

22 Consequences in North America
U.S. created a constitutional government (Federalism) based on principles of Enlightenment (Locke as justification for actions- Montesquieu as base for gov’t) No radical social change- because there was not rigid social stratification in colonies, so they didn’t need it

23 Consequences in Britain
Loss of colonies was a blow- will change the way they deal with their other “settler” (majority European) colonies (Like Canada, Australia, New Zealand). Less independence Also led to changes between kings and parliament- Hanoverian dynasty (taken over 1715) had allowed ministers to handle parliament- had been more figureheads (perhaps b/c they were German, not Eng) George III was the 1st Hanoverian to try to rule- (resented by parliament) and look where that got him! Parliament takes power more firmly, makes king more and more ceremonial

24 Cabinet System The king’s “ministers” were leading members of parliament- act as liaison between the two. George I spoke very little English – appointed Robert Walpole to be his “Prime” minister- head the gov’t in his name

25 Revolts and Reform Success of American Revolution inspired imitations
Bourgeoisie were wealthy and well educated- wanted a voice to go with their $$

26 Dutch Patriot’s Revolt 1787
Resented the House of Orange as Stadholders (thought they were bad for Holland- probably right- getting them sucked into problems elsewhere) “Dutch Patriots” demanded political reform- organized militias (the “free corps”) to enforce goals- elections to replace house of Orange so that they could create a republican gov’t Frederick William II sent in troops to put down rebellion- but 1st wave of attempts for change in Europe proper

27 Belgian Independence Movement
Belgium had remained Hapsburg- so transferred to Austrian control when Bourbon dynasty took Spain. Reforms of Joseph II (which had eliminated ONLY nobles being in gov’t positions) sparked protest by Nobles in Belgium- which created a counter protest by those looking for a more representation- and independence. Put down by Leopold II (Jos. Brother, spent most of his reign undoing reforms)

28 The French Revolution In 1789 France was the most advanced country in Europe- with the largest population, most $$ (though not per capita), and strongest military. French Culture dominated the continent- everyone looked to them

29 Why? (is there a Revolution)
French Revolution was really a civil war between social classes, and for the 1st time- the lower classes win. Directly challenged French social structure- demanding an end to Absolutism and aristocratic privilege- calling for “liberty, equality and fraternity”. Inspired by the success of the Amer. Rev- but Amer. Had been using Fr. Enlightenment ideas.

30 Louis XV 1715-1775 Much more influenced by his
ministers (and Mistresses- Pompadour and Du Berry) than XIV had been. Allowed Parlements (local meetings of various officials) still refused to call Estates General

31 Three Estates The social system in France before 1789 was known as the “Ancien Regime” 1st Estate: Clergy. 1-2% of pop, control 10% of land and $. Exempt from most taxes- collected taxes of their own (tithe) 2nd Estate: Nobility. 8% of pop, control 30% of land. Also exempt from most taxes 3rd Estate: Everyone else. About 10% Bourgeoisie, 80% peasant. Controlled 30-40% of land and $$- but that was middle class- more than ½ of France had NO land- on edge of pure poverty. Paid ALL taxes- Taille (head tax), tithe, Salt tax, poll tax. Plus Corvee- had to work a certain # of days on royal projects

32 Problems in France Long Term: the revolution was caused by the breakdown of the Ancien Regime- it was medieval, and too much had changed

33 Financial Spent a fortune on Amer. Rev- and already in debt. Extravagance of French court Bad harvests in 1787 &1788 caused food prices to rise out of reach of large #s of pop. King’s controller general called for a new tax: “territorial subvention” which would be for everyone. Nobles demand it be passed by Estates General There has already been dramatic price inflation from (65%, while real wages rose only 22%) In 1780s ½ of budget paid INTEREST on the debt. Actually, French econ really that much worse off than other countries- but creditors refused to allow bankruptcy as they had done before. Irony is that nobles called for estate general- to BLOCK new tax

34 Political Parlements rare- Estates General had not met in 175 years.
No room for other voices- everything comes down to skill of king- and XV & XVI were NOT skilled political leaders

35 Social Modern historians have spent a good deal of time debating why this boiled over in France- the vast majority of the continental countries used the same system…

36 Estates General Called in May 1789
Each “estate” (clergy, noble, bourgeoisie) sent representatives King asked them to support tax to pay debt and keep the party going Each Estate had 1 vote (1st and 2nd usually voted together) but 3rd had most representatives- and demanded a head count vote- and a permanent voice in gov’t. King refused and dismissed- again irony- if they had talked and compromised….

37 Cahier des Doleances Each estate was supposed to make a list of what was wrong and how it should be fixed 3rd estate demanded constitutional monarchy and liberty protected by law- again, NOT radical- that will come from not listening

38 Tennis Court Oath June 17, 1789 3rd estate met anyway
(at nearby indoor racquet court) and vowed not to disband until their rights were recognized and they had a constitution. Called themselves the “National Assembly” Said they alone represented the people of France. Really the point of no return in terms of Revolution- the king has chosen to keep his head in the sand- refuses to talk/compromise

39 Popular Revolts Political crisis and general uneasiness sent the people of Paris into panic mode July 14th 1789 attack on Bastille (planning to get guns and free prisoners) Lost Paris for the King- and saved the National Assembly- he had been about to move against them Great Fear- began in July as well- a vast panic as rural peasant rose up to attack landlords, and landlords responded savagely

40 Women’s March on Versailles
October 1789 a group of women marched from Paris to Versailles demanding an interview with the king/queen 7000 went- killed royal bodyguards- threatened royal family King and Queen forced to move into Tuilleries palace in Paris

41 A New Regime (Constitutional Stage)
August 4th 1789 National Assembly voted to abolish ancien regime- all citizens of France are now equal (and pay taxes) Began a constitution (finished 1791) which shared power between king and themselves. Indirect election with $$ qualifications- keeping power in fairly small group A huge social change- at at this point relatively peaceful. This was what the peasants wanted- after this, THEY will become far less radical Ended serfdom, and Corvee. Adopted metric system- issued new paper $$

42 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Main sources were Locke and Rousseau. France’s Natural Rights were “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” from Rousseau they took the idea of the General Will (majority rule) being the foundation of the law. About being “citizens” regardless of class August 26th 1789 Not political independence (that was Tennis Court Oath) but Freedom of Thought. Using the ideas of the Enlightenment- designed to guarantee Natural Rights

43 Civil Constitution of the Clergy
1790- Church was seen as part of Ancien Regime- so Nat. Assembly secularized the RC church and confiscated lands for gov’t Biggest mistake of National Assembly- began the radicalizing of the Revolution. Clergy to be elected- and required to take an oath of loyalty to the new state. Condemned the pope

44 Constitutional Monarchy
As Constitution of 1791 is being written the most divisive question is… what do we do with the king? Planning to keep- but disagreed how much power he should/should not have. In the end- decided King should be approved by unicameral legislature dominated by Bourgeoisie. Arguments over king created division in the assembly- radicals used that dissention to take power for themselves

45 Attempted Escape (Flight to Varennes)
June Louis XVI and Family decide to flee to Austria- where Louis will meet Austrian army at border to invade France. Captured 20 miles from border- returned to Paris- made people turn against the royal family, seen as traitors

46 International Reaction to Revolution
Mixed Edmund Burke “Reflections of Revolution in France 1790” defended the ancien regime- predicted the revolution would lead to anarchy and chaos. Thomas Paine “Rights of Man 1791” saw revolution as a triumph of liberty over despotism

47 Declaration of Pillnitz
Issued by Prussia and Austria 1791 Condemned the revolution- demanded restoration of absolute monarchy- or they would declare war. Kind of a bluff- thought it would scare the revolutionaries into submission (though they do actually declare war in the end)

48 War of 1st Coalition Fueled by revolutionary passion and anti-Austrian sentiment (marie antionette hated) the National Assembly declared war on Austria after declaration of pillnitz. French got spanked in battle (after all, their officers had all been noble….) but disagreements between Austria and Prussia saved France from outright invasion

49 Brunswick Manifesto July 1792
Prussia and Austria declare they will destroy Paris if the royal family is harmed. Incited riots- Tuilleries palace attacked and royal family imprisoned in Bastille Start of Radical Phase of Revolution…..

50 Paris Commune Radical political groups led by George Danton forced National Assembly to suspend monarchy. Called for a new constitution (starting a charming Fr. Tradition) based on Universal Manhood Suffrage

51 September Massacres Sept. 1792
Leaders of the Paris Commune (Danton and Marat) stated rumors that aristocrats were plotting with foreign powers to destroy the revolution and restore the king. Mobs formed and slaughtered over 1000 nobles and clergy- many of whom were already in prison. Started to make France look unhinged to foreign powers

52 Sans Culottes “without breeches” meaning not that they had no pants- but that they had no sympathy with the aristocrats. NOT Bourgeoisie- working class. Much more radical and violent- had stormed the Bastille, marched on Versailles, led Sept. massacres- they will gain more and more voice in gov’t

53 The Radical Revolution (Radical Phase)
Where we all take a little trip to crazy town…… The Radical Revolution (Radical Phase)

54 National Convention Sept 1792 new legislature meets to create a new Republican constitution. Very suspicious of king- want him OUT of politics Younger- less cautious than Nat. Assembly, goal right from the start is RADICAL change. Will take “liberte, egalite, fraternite” to next level- by abolishing everything else

55 National Convention Sept 1792 new legislature meets to create a new Republican constitution. Very suspicious of king- want him OUT of politics Younger- less cautious than Nat. Assembly, goal right from the start is RADICAL change. Will take “liberte, egalite, fraternite” to next level- by abolishing everything else

56 Jacobins Stressed Enlightenment value of equality above all else
Want to eliminate monarchy The Mountain: the most radical part of the group- led by Robespierre and Danton. They wanted to destroy the existing social structure and start over. Sat on highest left hand benches Supported by Sans-culottes

57 The Girondins More interested in “freedom”- especially economic freedom. More politically moderate Predominately rural- want to exile king

58 Execution of the King and Queen
Louis XVI tried and executed January accused of conspiring with Austria to overthrow the Revolution Marie Antoinette executed 10 months later. Brutal treatment in prison (kept from her children, psychologically tortured etc…) known as “Widow Capet”

59 The Committee of Public Safety
Early in 1793 there was additional violence- and France was attacked by a coalition of surrounding nations, so an emergency gov’t was created to respond to the crisis 12 person gov’t headed by “the incorruptible” Robespierre. Jacobins were using (and creating) the situation to grab power. Their plan- heavily influenced by Rousseau- was to “undo” the ancien regime, and make an entirely new society

60 The Law of Maximum An early version of socialism. Committee created a planned economy to deal with the food shortages (which have never been solved from 1789) Gov’t set max prices for staple foods, and instituted rationing to ensure equal distribution of foodstuffs.. State also took over manufacturing for efficiency and equitable distribution of goods

61 Military Victories France was at war with Prussia, Britain, Holland, Austria and Russia (varying degrees) Gov’t instituted Levee en Masse- all males within a certain age range were drafted- creating the largest army in European history (approx 1 mil) Victorious- a tremendous morale boost (and gave them their national anthem- la Marseillaise)

62 Reign of Terror July 1793- July 1794
Anyone suspected of being an “enemy of the revolution” tired and executed. 16,000 “officially” killed- probably closer to 50,000. Robespierre decided upper classes were incapable of change, and needed to be purged Executions became spectator sport. Used as political weapon as much as social weapon- keep power for Jacobins. Of executions: 8% aristocrat, 14% Bourg., 6% Clergy, 70% peasant


64 Republic of Virtue Radicals wanted to change EVERYTHING- said all culture was attached to ancien regime, and had to go. New calendar, abolished RC church in France (force clergy to marry etc..) Eliminate all titles, even “Mr. and Mrs.” all people in France now “citizen” Created cult of supreme being- Notre Dame rechristened the “temple of Reason” (until a new one, the Pantheon could be built) This is where the Jacobins overstepped- this upset people even more than mass executions- turned people against the revolution


66 Law of Suspects Alleged “enemies” brought before tribunals for sham trials. Not told the charges, or allowed to call witnesses, could be accused on hearsay, not even always allowed to speak in your own defense Hysteria grew until Robespierre was himself accused and executed

67 Thermadorian Reaction
Robespierre’s death ended the Jacobin gov’t Bourgeoisie leaders of 1789 feel this has all gotten out of hand, want to take over and create a more moderate government Shows the pendulum of revolution- terror was extreme left- now they will begin heading towards an extreme right wing gov’t

68 The Directory In 1794 France is a mess. At war, exhausted by chaos, and no closer to a functional gov’t than they were in 1789. “Thermadorians” (middle classes- not really representing interests of whole country, which makes them weak from the start) wrote a new constitution in 1795 that provided amnesty for Jacobins, and created a constitutional republic with a 5 man executive (the directory) and bi cameral legislature. Allowed for multi-party participation in gov’t. Maintained price controls of Jacobins- issued new $$ to deal with continued inflation

69 Ultra-Royalists Moderate Royalists
Wanted to overthrow the Republic and restore the Bourbon family (XVI’s younger Brother) to an absolute monarchy Wanted to have an elected king (from one of several noble families) to head a constitutional monarchy that kept the Republic’s political institutions

70 Neo Jacobins Babeuvists
Didn’t want Terror back- but admired egalitarian spirit behind the radical movement. Wanted free education and progressive taxation Most radical group (led by Francois Babeuf) who said the Terror had been the prelude to the “final revolution of the masses”. Saw the Directory as another form of repression Really the original modern communist- wanted to abolish private property and enforce equality (he was guillotined)

71 Government doesn’t really have a lid on things…using the army to control the population (never a good sign in gov’t)

72 Women and the Revolution
Feminist thinkers like Mary Wollstonecraft argued that revolution should create equal rights for them as well as the lower classes. Women watched political debates- took part in mob violence…but did not gain political rights Revolution did offer greater legal rights, like property, and led to the opening of schools for girls- but didn’t change their status. Olympia de Gouges- advocated women’s suffrage- however, most men still felt women too weak/ruled by emotion

73 Nations and Nationalism
Both the American and French Revolutions played a part in developing the idea of a NATION- a group of people who share a common cultural and political identity. The countries of Europe have been identified through their kings since the dark ages- now loyalty is shifting the the place itself- not the leader Nationalism provides a sense of belonging which creates strength for the country served by it

74 Coup d'état Brumaire November the Directory is struggling to govern and survive A young military officer- Napoleon Bonaparte- uses his army to drive the legislators from the assembly and overthrows the gov’t. Invited to do so by Abbe Sieyes- (a famous revolutionary), who had feared royalists were gaining in power b/c things were going so badly people who want a king for someone in charge

75 Age of Napoleon: 3rd Phase Authoritarian
That young officer took it upon himself to “save” France. (“the crown of France was lying in the gutter, I merely picked it up”) Played a key role in the development of modern France- and of nationalism in Europe Brings Enlightened Despotism to France- Napoleon rebuilds the nation after chaos, restores her glory, and solidifies many of the ideals of the revolution- at the prince of individual liberty.

76 Rise From Corsica (of Italian descent, spoke with an accent all his life)- joined the army as a teenager- would never have been more than a mid-rank officer w/o revolution (not noble) Defeated Austria in attacks of , invaded Italy and Egypt- seemed to offer the strength and decisiveness the gov’t was lacking Military genius- specialized in use of artillery (which was seen as less “noble” than sending men in to be slaughtered)

77 Consulate When Directory overthrown Napoleon invited to join a 3 man executive “Consulate” while a new constitution was written. (Nap. Himself chose title from ancient Rome) But he quickly ousted other two- by 1801 he is lone executive (1st Consul. Still a legislature, but they are his puppets- he is calling the shots He is the most effective of the Enlightened Despots- from the first behaved as if he had absolute power- and was using it for your own good. His personality and convictions were so strong no one disagreed (such a relief for someone to have a plan) Demanded loyalty to France (and therefore to himself), to reward ability (not birth) and create effective bureaucracy 1802 declared 1st Consul for Life- virtually king….

78 Emperor From there has been a king, a constitutional monarchy, a republic, and a federal system. Now we are back to a king (sort of) but France has had kings- so Napoleon makes himself “Emperor” Preemptive strike against royalists (who were plotting a Bourbon return) and also a way of being greater than any other French leader. Gave titles to his family too. An emperor needs an empire- and Nap. Decided the best way to expand French influence and spread the revolution was to invade other countries. Saw himself as a “liberator” spreading the ideals of the revolution.

79 Napoleon’s Rule Military victories made Napoleon popular.
Rolled back some of the radical changes- (restored the RC church, allowed noble titles) but kept equal rights and equality before the law Educational reforms (careers based on talent) however, did run a bit of a police state- his “enemies under constant surveillance and squashed any political opposition

80 Careers Open to Talent People should rise based on skills- not birth. No buying military commissions, promotion through victory Created a new imperial nobility (over 3600 titles created- for generals and officials, loyalty) Amnesty for émigrés who returned

81 Concordat of 1801 Made peace with church so they would stop supporting the Bourbon claim to throne. Emp. Kept church lands (paid $$ directly to pope for them) deposed priests/bishops reinstated, return to Christian Calendar

82 Napoleonic Code Napoleon’s most lasting contribution is a new organization of laws- will create base for legal code to this day. Strengthened Bureaucracy and laws over families Protection of property, legal unity- equality before the law. Freedom of religion, inheritance rights for women Spread to other countries he conquered- allowed them their first opportunities for elected legislatures (Not in France)

83 Financial Reform Created the Bank of France in Ruled with a balanced budget (overspent on military at times, but made it up in plunder from other countries- like art from Italy….Mona Lisa….) Issued a new currency (again) Econ reform for econ stimulation- kept food prices low, increased employment. Low taxes for farmers- redistribution of church lands to farmers

84 Military Expansion A very aggressive and successful commander. Attacked countries multiple directions- by 1810 he was a war with EVERY major power in Europe- and beat most of them ( most peaceful part of reign- sold Louisiana after failed Haitian expedition) As he conquered, Nap. Changed social structure to destroy aristocratic privilege, and suit himself. (elim HRE, creates Confederacy of the Rhine- which awakened German nationalism) Had occasional problems- like Peninsular War in Spain

85 Haitian Revolution (turn the page)
1789 St. Domingue (Haiti) was one of the richest colonies in the world (sugar/slave labor) Inspired by Fr. Rev and Dec. of Rights of Man- the Gens de Couleur (mulattos) sought first equality with whites- and then overthrew them . Led by Toussaint L’Overture- it was the only successful slave rebellion ever in new world. 1802 Napoleon sent troops to regain the island- decimated by yellow fever- he decided to cut his losses and ignore new world. Haiti’s success helps inspire Latin American independence movement- esp after Nap invades Spain

86 Napoleonic Wars Liked to keep his wars short and decisive- only with Britain did he fight long-term (that was in part b/c they rarely engaged in his style of battle) Great powers generally fought separately or in paired alliances (sign of issues they were having themselves)- kept them from allying as a whole to stop him until and one on one Nap. Was a match for any of them

87 War of 2nd Coaltion this war takes Nap. From creative general to 1st Consul. Napoleon invaded Egypt- and was defeated by British Navy at the Battle of the Nile- but beat the British army at the Battle of the Pyramids Took Austria’s lands in Northern Italy (spurs Italian nationalism) and extended eastern border of France to the Rhine

88 The Grand Empire From 1805-1815 France was constantly at war.
Napoleon created the largest empire in Europe since Rome. Included France, German states, Holland, a chunk of Italy, Spain. Allied to Austria, Prussia and Russia

89 War of 3rd Coalition England made an alliance with Austria and Russia, convincing them that Napoleon was a threat to the balance of power. Battle of Trafalgar- (Oct 1805), Napoleon tries to invade England- and fails. Made England dominant sea power for 100 years BUT at Battle of Austerlitz (Dec 1805) Napoleon wins one of his greatest victories- stomping down Austria- and he wins the war overall. Arc de Triumph built to commemorate Austerlitz- this is Napoleon’s high water mark…

90 To avoid further conflict with Austria- in 1810 Napoleon divorced his wife Josephine and married the 18 year old daughter of the Austrian Emperor (a cousin of Marie Antoinette)

91 The Continental System
Wanted to invade England- but knew France’s navy was no match for England (already been spanked at Battle of Trafalgar) So- Nap decided to soften them up by hurting their econ- making them easier to invade Berlin Decree no French territory or ally would trade with England England responds with “Order of Council” Neutral nations could trade only if they stop in England 1st. France forgot that the majority of English trade is with Americas and colonies (75%) actually hurt Europe more than England- and made English determined to beat Napoleon

92 Peninsular War Nap invaded and conquered Spain fairly easily (made his brother Joseph king) but found it hard to hold. Spanish fought Guerilla style (which is not Nap’s style, he likes to stand and fight) Aided and supplied by Britain- but Napoleon decided to blame Russia, and break his alliance to invade

93 Russian Campaign 1812 Russia is the big prize- literally, if he can conquer that Napoleon will have built the largest empire in European history Invades with “Grand Army of 600,000 (only about 1/3 French- the rest conscripts) Russians retreat- and use scorched earth policy- which leaves Nap stranded in Moscow in winter with NO supplies- and no choice but to give up a fight that isn’t happening. Only about 30,000 make it back to France- 400,000 FREEZE/STARVE, 100,000 KIA, 70,000 taken prisoner. How do you spell disaster? Shatter’s Nap’s myth of invincibility

94 War of 4th Coalition Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia join together to defeat Napoleon (Quadruple Alliance) And to make matters worse- the people of France are turning against him- they have had enough 1813 Battle of Leipzig (Battle of Nations) a severe defeat. (Largest battle in history until 20th century- 500,000 on field, and 50,000 killed in 3 days of fighting) Napoleon offered terms- he could keep crown if he restored France to original size- he refuses

95 Downfall Quadruple Alliance pushed into France to finish Napoleon. Prussia and Russia attacked Paris in captured Napoleon and forced him to abdicate Exiled to island of Elba in Mediterranean in allowed to keep title as “emperor of French”, but Bourbon king was restored to throne. Kept under guard by British

96 Congress of Vienna Quadruple alliance (or at least their representatives) met from Sept 1814-June 1815 to decide what to DO with this defeated France. CONSERVATISM- Put Europe back where it had been in 1789 Stabilized Europe for the next 50 years Concert of Europe- these countries will meet periodically from to avoid issues Prince Clemens Von Metternich of Austria in charge. Known as the “dancing congress” lots of balls and pageantry. Reward states that had sacrificed to defeat Nap: Eng gets Malta & Ceylon, Austrian get Lombardy (back) and Illyria, Russia gets more Poland, Prussia gets Rhineland

97 Balance of Power Restabilize the continent by encircling France with strong countries. Ex. Austrian Netherlands combined with Holland, German Confederacy (end of HRE- 39 states) Switzerland neutralized The goal was to avoid further problems by not having a “leader” nation. But….. With France fairly out of the picture, Austria struggling, Russia still catching up, and Germany not yet together- this leaves the path clear for British domination

98 Legitimacy Put all the traditional ruling families back in power- Bourbons in France, Spain, and Naples Other ruling houses restored as well Glorify absolutism and traditions (with occasional nods to revolutionary ideas to keep the lid on)

99 100 Days- it ain’t over yet…..
March 1815 Napoleon escaped from Elba- and marched on Paris, gathering supporters as he went. (France didn’t like being defeated, and Louis XVIII was not a fun king- Nap seemed like a better idea) Took Paris without a shot fired- but the alliance can’t let this go- they gather and defeat Napoleon one last time at Waterloo in June of 1815 (under command of Duke of Wellington) Exiled to St. Helena (far off coast of Africa) died 1821

100 Evaluation of Napoleon
France as been on a merry go round of gov’t since and it’s not over yet. Next 50 years will see continued change as France struggles between conservative and liberal (and radical) ideas Nationalism had become a major component of European society 1st egalitarian dictatorship Spread ideas and achievements of revolution (dec of rights of man, nap code) throughout Europe On the other hand- enormous loss of life, repression of individual liberty

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