Presentation on theme: "Adolescent Social Development. Social Development Psychologists believe there are three major tasks of adolescence Forming an Identity Developing Intimacy."— Presentation transcript:
Social Development Psychologists believe there are three major tasks of adolescence Forming an Identity Developing Intimacy Separating from Parents
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate ageStage Description of Task InfancyTrust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants (1st year) develop a sense of basic trust. ToddlerAutonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and (2nd year)and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. PreschoolerInitiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks (3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. ElementaryCompetence vs. Children learn the pleasure of applying (6 years-inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feel puberty) inferior.
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age StageDescription of Task Adolescence Identity vs. roleTeenagers work at refining a sense of self by (teens into confusiontesting roles and then integrating them to 20’s)form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult Intimacy vs.Young adults struggle to form close relation- (20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate 40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri- (40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult Integrity vs.When reflecting on his or her life, the older (late 60’s and despairadult may feel a sense of satisfaction or up) failure.
Forming an Identity Adolescents usually try on different “selves” in different situations Discomfort occurs when two situations overlap
Forming an Identity Some adopt the values and expectations of their parents Others adopt a negative identity in defiance of parents Others do not develop a strong sense of self
Developing Intimacy Once you have a clear and comfortable sense of who you are, you are ready for close relationships
Gender and Social Connectedness Psychologist Carol Gilligan disagrees with Erikson Creating a separate identity is more of a concern for “individualist” males Females are more concerned with making connections
The Nurture of Gender Gender roles: our expectations about the way men and women behave. Women: decorate the home, care for children, do the dishes. Men: drive the car, manage finances, initiate dating.
The Nature of Gender Married women do 90% of the laundry and 13% of the car maintenance. 90% of the time in two parent families, the mother stays home with sick children, arranges a baby-sitter, and calls the doctor.
Social Gender Differences Girls play in smaller groups with less competitive interaction Girls are more likely to admit when they don’t know an answer Boys usually play in large groups with an activity focus Boys are more likely to make a guess or make something up
Social Gender Differences As teens girls spend more time with friends and less time alone Females use conversation to explore relationship Males are more likely to spend time alone Males use conversation to communicate solutions
Social Gender Differences On computers, girls spend more time e- mailing Women make 63% of telephone calls and stay connected longer Women purchase 85% of all greeting cards Boys spend more time playing games Men emphasize freedom and self-reliance
Gender and Social Connectedness Both genders report closer relationship with women than men Gender differences in connectedness peak in late adolescence and early adulthood then the difference soften as we get older
Do We Learn Gender? Gender identity: our sense of being male or female. Gender typed: the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. Social learning theory assumes that children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished. “Nicole, you’re such a good mommy to your dolls.” “Big boys don’t cry, Alex.”
Do We Learn Gender? Gender schema theory: combines social learning theory with cognition. Gender becomes a lens (schema) through which you view your experiences. Both the gender schema theory and the social learning theory lead to gender-typed behavior. “I am male – thus, masculine, strong, aggressive” or “I am female – therefore, feminine, sweet, and helpful.”
Separating From Parents As adolescents seek to form their own identities, they begin to separate themselves form their parents The transition is gradual By adolescence, arguments are more common
The changing parent-child relationship 100% 80 60 40 20 0 2 to 4 5 to 8 9 to 11 Ages of child in years Percent with positive, warm interaction with parents Separating From Parents
For most, disagreement is not destructive to the relationship As parental influence diminishes, peer influence increases
Peer Influence Peer relationships are extremely important to teens “The social atmosphere in most high schools is poisonously clique- driven and exclusionary”
Peer Influence When rejected, teens are vulnerable to depression, low self-esteem, withdrawal, loneliness, and sometimes violent outbursts Although peer influence is important the parents are still relied on for major life decisions