Presentation on theme: "Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:
1Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 4The Developing Person
2Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development Take a few moments and think about your earliest memory. Where were you? What were you doing? Who was around you? How old were you? What stands out about your earliest memory?
3Prenatal Development and the Newborn _______________ Psychologya branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span
4Prenatal Development and the Newborn Life is sexually transmitted
5Prenatal Development and the Newborn 40 days days months 4 months
6Prenatal Development and the Newborn _____________ Reflextendency to open mouth, and search for nipple when touched on the cheekPreferenceshuman voices and facesface like images-->smell and sound of mother preferred
7Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development ____________biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behaviorrelatively uninfluenced by experienceAt birth3 months15 monthsCortical Neurons
8Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile- and can retain that learning for a month (Rovee-Collier, 1989, 1997).
9Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Typical AgeRangeDescriptionof StageDevelopmentalPhenomenaBirth to nearly 2 years____________________________Experiencing the world throughsenses and actions (looking,touching, mouthing)Object permanenceStranger anxietyAbout 2 to 6 yearsAbout 7 to 11 yearsAbout 12 throughadulthoodRepresenting thingswith words and imagesbut lacking logical reasoningPretend playEgocentrismLanguage development________________________Thinking logically about concreteevents; grasping concrete analogiesand performing arithmetical operationsConservationMathematical transformationsAbstract reasoningAbstract logicPotential for moral reasoning
10Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development __________________the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
11Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development ____________________the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
13Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development ___________________the inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of viewTheory of Mindpeople’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predictAutisma disorder that appears in childhoodMarked by deficient communication, social interaction and understanding of others’ states of mind
14Social Development ______________________ Attachment fear of strangers that infants commonly displaybeginning by about 8 months of ageAttachmentan emotional tie with another personshown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
15Social Development _________________________________ Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother
16Social Development _________________ Imprinting an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper developmentImprintingthe process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
17Social DevelopmentMonkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror-stricken when placed in strange situations without their surrogate mothers
19Social Development __________________ Theory of Moral Development Level 1: _________________ moralityStage 1: Individual obeys rules in order to avoid punishment.Stage 2: Individual conforms to society's rules in order to receive rewards.Level 2: _______________ moralityStage 3: Individual behaves morally in order to gain approval from other people.Stage 4: Conformity to authority to avoid censure and guilt.Level 3: _________________moralityStage 5: Individual is concerned with individual rights and democratically decided laws.Stage 6: Individual is entirely guided by his or her own conscience.
20Social DevelopmentGroup WorkKohlberg’s DilemmasNext Class
21Adolescence __________________ Puberty the transition period from childhood to adulthoodextending from puberty to independencePubertythe period of sexual maturationwhen a person becomes capable of reproduction
22Adolescence _______________ Characteristics Menarche (meh-NAR-key) body structures that make sexual reproduction possibleovaries- femaletestes- maleexternal genitalianonreproductive sexual characteristicsfemale- breast and hipsmale- voice quality and body hairMenarche (meh-NAR-key)first menstrual period
23AdolescenceHeight incentimeters19017015013011090705024681012141618Age in yearsBoysGirlsThroughout childhood, boys and girls are similar in height. At puberty, girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age 14.
25Social Development Writing Task Take a few moments and write a brief paragraph about how you think you will develop over the next five or ten years. Will you be different or the same? How will change?
26Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximateage Stage Description of TaskInfancy Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants(1st year) develop a sense of basic trust.Toddler Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and(2nd year) and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities.Preschooler Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks(3-5 years) and carry out plans, or they feelguilty about efforts to be independent.Elementary Competence vs Children learn the pleasure of applying(6 years- inferiority themselves to tasks, or they feelpuberty) inferior.
27Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximateage Stage Description of TaskAdolescence Identity vs. role Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by(teens into confusion testing roles and then integrating them to20’s) form a single identity, or they becomeconfused about who they are.Young Adult Intimacy vs. Young adults struggle to form close relation-(20’s to early isolation ships and to gain the capacity for intimate40’s) love, or they feel socially isolated.Middle Adult Generativity vs. The middle-aged discover a sense of contri-(40’s to 60’s) stagnation buting to the world, usually through familyand work, or they may feel a lack of purpose.Late Adult Integrity vs. When reflecting on his or her life, the older(late 60’s and despair adult may feel a sense of satisfaction orup) failure.
28Adolescence- Social Development The changing parent-child relationship100%806040202 to to to 11Ages of child in yearsPercent withpositive, warminteractionwith parents
29AdolescenceIn the 1890’s the average interval between a woman’s menarche and marriage was about 7 years; now it is over 12 years. What are the implications of this information?10207.2 Year Interval12.5 Year IntervalAge1890, Women1995, Women
30Adulthood- Physical Development The Aging Senses90Percent correct whenIdentifying smells70501030507090Age in years
31Adulthood- Physical Development The Aging Senses90Percent correct whenidentifying spokenwords70501030507090Age in years
32Adulthood- Cognitive Development ____________________a study in which people of different ages are compared with one anotherLongitudinal Studya study in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time