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Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease.

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Presentation on theme: "Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease

2 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease What is Diabetes Mellitus? –Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease in which your body doesn’t make or respond properly to insulin –Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas –Insulin is used to convert sugar, starches and other foods to energy –If you have diabetes, your blood glucose or “sugar” levels are too high

3 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease What is Diabetes Mellitus? –Diabetes mellitus is defined as a fasting blood glucose of 126 mg/dL or more measured on 2 occasions –Type I - appears at younger ages The pancreas stops making insulin Without insulin shots the patient won’t survive

4 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease What is Diabetes Mellitus? –Type II - Adult-onset appears in middle- aged adults Develops when the body doesn’t make enough insulin doesn’t efficiently use the insulin it makes (Insulin resistance)

5 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease High levels of blood glucose may cause: –Hunger –Extreme thirst –Frequent urination –Weight loss –Fatigue –Blurry vision

6 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease How dangerous is Diabetes?: –Diabetes kills > 60,00 Americans each year –190,000 die from diabetic complications/yr –Diabetics are 2 to 4 X more likely to have a heart attack or stroke –Higher risk of congestive heart failure –Heart disease tends to be more severe

7 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease How dangerous is Diabetes?: –Diabetes causes nerve damage in the heart which can make a heart attack painless or ‘silent’ –Heart attacks are more likely to be fatal in diabetics –Diabetes increases LDL “bad” cholesterol –Diabetes lowers HDL “good” cholesterol

8 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease How dangerous is Diabetes?: –Diabetes causes: Blindness Kidney disease often requiring dialysis nerve disease limb amputation

9 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease Diabetes and eye conditions –Frequent complication in both Type I and II Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness Abnormality of small blood vessels in the retina Blood vessels weaken and leak blood Glaucoma and cataracts are more common in diabetes

10 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease Diabetes and eye conditions –What Should Diabetic patients do? See their eye doctor at least once a year Keep their blood sugars as close to normal as possible Tight sugar control can reduce the risk of eye damage by 76% Quit smoking

11 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease –Kidney disease and failure (end-stage- renal disease) is a frequent complication of diabetes –May take years to develop –Tiny blood vessels in the kidney act as filters to remove wastes, chemicals and excess water from the blood

12 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease –These blood vessels are damaged in diabetes –become leaky and protein spills into the urine –When the entire filtration system breaks down, the kidneys fail to function –Dialysis or kidney transplant is required to live

13 Lifestyles, Fitness and Rehabilitation Diabetes and Heart Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease –What should diabetic patients do? Keep blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible Tight control can reduce the risk of kidney damage by 35-56% ACE-inhibitors (blood pressure medicine) can reduce the progression of diabetic kidney disease


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