Presentation on theme: "Diabetes and Self Monitoring"— Presentation transcript:
1 Diabetes and Self Monitoring Write Presentation Title • Date in Footer
2 What is Diabetes?Diabetes is a condition in which there is too much sugar (glucose) in the blood. Although sugar is needed to provide energy for the body, when in excess, it causes problem.Persons with diabetes have excess sugar because they lack or have deficient supply of insulin.
4 Diabetes Mellitus A Serious Disease Leading cause of newcases of blindness25 times more prone toeye problems6 times higher risk forParalysis (stroke)2-3 times higher risk forheart attack5 times more prone toKidney failure20 times more prone tolower limb amputationNerve damage causesloss of sensation
5 What Are Common Symptoms of Diabetes ? Frequent UrinationHungerWeight lossExcessive thirstOther Symptoms like:FatigueUnusual InfectionsBlurred visionDry and itchy skin etc
6 How do you Manage Your Diabetes? Follow a HealthyMeal PlanRegular ExerciseTake yourMedicationTest blood sugarRegularly
7 Diabetes Self-management Understanding diabetes, its management and the problemsassociated with itParticipation in decision making and taking an active part in dayto day managementMonitoring and keeping track of your blood sugarIt requires determination, effort and timeIt requires willingness for self-careIt requires close co-ordination with your doctor and the diabetes care team
8 Benefits of Normal Blood Sugar Improves your sense of well beingRestores energyMakes you symptom freeHelps prevent long term complications of diabetes
9 Self Management What Is Required? Test and record blood and /or urine sugar regularly as advisedRecord your medication, food and activity patternIdentify blood sugar pattern in relation to the above and learn how your blood sugar reacts to changesUse the learning and your blood sugar results to adjust your food, activity and medication
10 Self Management What is Required? Learn to recognize and manage hypoglycemia and sick day problemsVisit your doctor and diabetes care team regularly and carry out other tests and examinations as advisedMake all efforts to control your diabetes with help of your diabetes care team to prevent long term complications
11 Methods of Self-monitoring Home monitoring and recording ofblood sugar using glucose meters, or color stripsurine sugar and ketones using strips or reagents
12 Self Monitoring of Blood Sugar Your Tool to Good Control ! It allows you to determine pattern of blood sugar level and make necessary changes in your food and activity program or insulin / OHA doseAllows you to respond quickly to a rise or fall in blood sugarUseful in preventing long term complications
13 Home Monitoring of Blood Sugar Check when and how often to monitor - suggested times includeFasting, before lunch and dinner2 hrs after breakfast, lunch and dinner3 AMTest more oftenWhen not wellSuspect hypoglycemiaDuring pregnancyWhen changing treatment or not in control
14 Home Monitoring of Blood Sugar What is neededLancetTest stripsCotton swabGlucose meter or color chartStepsClean and dry handsPuncture skin of finger (side), squeeze out large drop of bloodApply blood to test strip, and do as per instructionsApply cotton swab to punctureNote and record result
15 Home Monitoring of Urine Sugar and Ketones Urine TestingPositive only when blood sugar is high > 180 mg/dl.Messy, not accurate but non invasive and less expensiveNot useful to detect and document hypoglycemiaVery useful in testing for ketonesWhat is neededTest tube to collect urineTest stripsStepsCollect urine in test tube (second void preferable for urine sugar)Dip test strip in urine and do as per instructionsNote and record result
16 Why Test for Ketones in the Urine? Ketones are acid waste products formed when the liver burns fat for energyProduced when level of insulin is very low and blood sugar is risingAccumulate in the bloodstream and spill into the urineCan be detected by special test stripsProvide warning that blood sugar is out of controlHigh levels can lead to life threatening Ketoacidosis requiring prompt treatment and frequent monitoring
17 When to Test for Ketones? Sick, high fever or a stressful medical, physical or emotionalconditionBlood sugar >250 mg/dlNausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain accompanied by severethirst and confusionPeculiar fruity smell in breath
18 What Is Glycosylated Hemoglobin ? HbA1c is a test that reflects the average of your blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 monthsOptimal value of the HbA1c is 7%Higher value means, you had higher blood sugar levels for last 2 – 3 monthsHbA1c maybe high despite one or two near normal blood sugar values in between
19 Your Daily Diabetes Diary! An important tool to learn and manage your diabetesHelps keep record ofFood, activity and medicationsBlood sugar and other testsWeight changesHyposIt will help you to understand how your body responds to different foods, to different situations, and to your medications
20 Your Daily Diabetes Diary! It will also help your diabetes care team to discuss and plan your treatment effectively
21 Set Your Goals and Achieve Them Goal must be realistic and based on your need, lifestyle, health and ageYou and your diabetes care team must be equally involved in setting the goalOnce set, you and your diabetes care team must make all efforts to achieve it by appropriate monitoring and adjustments to your food, activity and medicationBlood Sugarmg/dlGoodBorderlinePoorFasting80-110> 140Post Prandial80-144> 180
22 Set Your Goals and Achieve Them Keep your blood sugar as close to good as possible to prevent long term complications. Take insulin, if advised.
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