2 INTRODUCTION:(High Blood Sugar, Hyperglycemia) Diabetes is a condition where people don't produce enough insulin to meet their body's needs and/or their cells don't respond properly to insulin. Insulin is important because it moves glucose, a simple sugar, into the body's cells from the blood. It also has a number of other effects on metabolism.
4 TYPES OF DIABETESThere are two main kinds of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.More than 90% of all people with diabetes havetype 2
5 Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot make insulin Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot make insulin. Everyone with type 1 diabetes requires insulin injections.Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body does not use insulin properly.. People with type 2 diabetes usually have a family history of this condition and are most often overweight
6 CAUSES OF DIABETES Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. Type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by insulin resistance.
7 Obesity is a leading cause of insulin resistance – at least 80% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Genetic factors are also likely to be involved in the cause of type 2 diabetes. A family history of the disease has been shown to increase the chances of getting it.
8 RISK FACTORS FOR DIABETES Risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes include:acanthosis nigricansbeing 40 years of age or olderblood vessel disease (e.g., damage to blood vessels in the eyes, nerves, kidneys, heart, brain, or arms and legs)First Nation, Hispanic, South Asian, Asian, or African descentgiving birth to a large babyhigh blood pressurehigh cholesterol
9 a history of gestational diabetes HIV infectionmental health disorders (e.g., bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia)obstructive sleep apneapolycystic ovary syndromeprediabetes or impaired fasting glucoseuse of certain medications (e.g., corticosteroids such as prednisone, certain antipsychotic medications, certain antiviral medications for HIV)
10 SYMPTOMS AND COMPLICATIONS People with type 1 diabetes who are not being treated urinate frequently and feel excessively thirsty. They usually feel very tired, experience severe weight loss despite normal or excessive food intake.The symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually appear more gradually. People often have a persistent, mild thirst. They urinate frequently, and often feel mild fatigue and complain of blurred vision.
11 Diabetes is a major cause of heart disease Diabetes is a major cause of heart disease. It's also the biggest cause of blindness and kidney failure in adults. Older adults with diabetes are twice as likely to develop high blood pressure as people without diabetes.People with diabetes are also much more likely to undergo foot and other "lower extremity" amputations due to circulatory problems.
12 DIAGNOSING DIABETESDiabetes is diagnosed with simple blood tests. Your doctor may diagnose diabetes if the level of glucose in your blood after 8 hours of fasting is 7.0 mmol/L or higher.Diabetes can also be diagnosed with a random blood glucose level. This is a blood glucose level taken any time of the day without regard to meals. If this level is 11.1 mmol/L or higher, your doctor may diagnose diabetes.
13 Doctors may also diagnose diabetes based on the results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). With this test, a person fasts and then is given a drink containing 75 g of carbohydrate. The blood sugar is checked at fasting and 2 hours after drinking the solution. Your doctor may diagnose diabetes if your blood sugar is greater than 11.1 mmol/L after 2 hours.
14 TREATING AND PREVENTING DIABETES Currently, type 1 diabetes is not preventable. However, studies have shown that type 2 diabetes can be prevented by adopting lifestyle changes that include eating a healthy diet and exercising.
15 People with type 1 diabetes need insulin* continuously to survive. There are three important things a person can do to treat type 2 diabetes:make lifestyle changes such as diet and exerciseuse medicationmonitor blood glucose levels