Presentation on theme: "Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a group of chronic diseases characterized by the inability of the body to metabolize carbohydrates properly. Insulin."— Presentation transcript:
Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is a group of chronic diseases characterized by the inability of the body to metabolize carbohydrates properly. Insulin helps glucose (“blood sugar”) enter cells where it is metabolized for energy. People suffering from diabetes produce no insulin, produce insufficient amounts of insulin, or respond abnormally to insulin. –As a result, blood glucose levels rise to unhealthy levels.
Diabetes Mellitus (continued) Chronic high blood glucose levels can lead to: –Hypertension –Loss of vision –Nerve damage In the United States, poorly controlled diabetes is a major cause of: –Kidney failure –Blindness –Lower limb amputations
Diabetes Mellitus (continued) Common signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes: –Lack of energy –Listlessness –Frequent urination –Excessive thirst –Fruity odor in breath –Increased appetite with weight loss –Vision problems
Diabetes Mellitus (continued) Most people with diabetes have type 2. –The typical type 2 diabetic is overweight, older than 40 years of age, and has a family history of the disease. Since 1990, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically in the United States, particularly among black Americans and Hispanics. –The disease is also becoming more common among children and adolescents. –Obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes in children and adults.
Diabetes Mellitus (continued) Common signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes: –Excessive thirst –Excessive urination –Vision problems –In women, recurrent vaginal infections –Skin sores that do not heal Type 2 diabetes can often be controlled by making changes in diet and regular exercise. Many diabetics, however, need to take medications to increase the production of insulin. Routine health checkups are essential to lessening the long-term damaging effects of diabetes.