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The Self, Social, and Moral Development Anna Griffith.

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1 The Self, Social, and Moral Development Anna Griffith

2 Physical Development Preschool Age (2 to 4 or 5 years) – Improvement in both gross- and fine-motor skills – Right- or left-handedness is chosen Elementary School Age (5 years to puberty) – Steady physical development – Children vary greatly in size and speed of development Adolescence – Puberty is the beginning of sexual maturation Menarche Spermarche Development of secondary sexual characteristics

3 Discussion What are some of the social implications of early maturation? Late maturation?

4 Brofenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Human Development This model emphasizes that the physical and social contexts in which people develop are ecosystems which are constantly interacting with and influence each other

5 StyleWarmth/Control RatioDescription Authoritativehigh warmth, high control Parents set clear limits, enforce rules, and expect mature behavior. They also listen to concerns, give reasons for rules, and allow democratic decision making. Punishment is less strict and provides more guidance. Authoritarianlow warmth, high control Parents seem very cold and controlling with their children, who are expected to be mature and obedient (no explanation for rules). There is very little emotional discussion and parents are not openly affectionate. Punishment is strict (not abusive). Permissivehigh warmth, low control Parents are warm and nurturing but expect little from children in terms of good behavior. Parents set very few rules or consequences. Rejecting/Neglectfullow warmth, low control Parents don’t seem to care about their children. They don’t bother with setting guidelines/rules for or communicating with their children. Parenting Styles

6 Discussion What are some of the advantages/disadvantages associated with the different parenting styles? What has been discovered about cultural differences when considering parenting styles and academic achievement?

7 Discussion What is the difference between a crowd and a clique? What types of popularity/unpopularity do we see in children (e.g. popular prosocial children)? What type(s) of popularity is exhibited in this clip? –

8 Abuse Indicators Physical IndicatorsBehavioral Indicators Physical Abuse Unexplained bruises and welts (various stages of healing), marks shaped like belt buckles or electrical chords, bite marks, puncture wounds  frequently appear after absences or weekends Unexplained burns (e.g. cigarette burns, rope burns, iron-shaped burns,) and immersion burns (sock/glove-like) Unexplained fractures, lacerations, abrasions (various stages of healing) Injuries attributed to the child being “clumsy” or “accident prone” Awkward movements, complaints of soreness Self-destructive Withdrawn and/or aggressive  behavioral extremes Uncomfortable with physical contact Arrives early/stays late as if afraid Chronic runaway (adolescents) Wears high neck, long sleeved clothing that isn’t weather appropriate Frequent absences

9 Abuse Indicators cont… Physical IndicatorsBehavioral Indicators Physical Neglect Abandonment Unattended physical problems or medical needs Constant fatigue, lack of energy Little or no supervision Often hungry, dressed inappropriately for the weather, poor hygiene Lice, distended stomach, emaciation Falls asleep in class Steals food, begs from classmates Reports that no caretaker is at home Frequent absences or tardiness, staying at school as long as possible when present Self-destructive Trouble with the law

10 Abuse Indicators cont… Physical IndicatorsBehavioral Indicators Sexual Abuse Difficulty walking or sitting Pain or itching in genital area Torn, stained, or bloodied underclothing Bruises or bleeding in external genitalia Venereal disease especially in pre-teens Frequent urinary tract or yeast infections Pregnancy Doesn’t want to change for gym Withdrawn, chronic depression Role reversal  overly concerned for siblings Promiscuity, excessive seductiveness Peer problems, lack of involvement Massive weight change Suicide attempts Inappropriate sex play or premature understanding of sex, frequent masturbation, sexual play with dolls or stuffed animals Sudden school difficulties

11 Think About It What steps might you take if you suspect a student is being abused?

12 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

13 StagesAge RangeEventDescription Trust vs. MistrustBirth to 12-18 monthsFeeding Infant must form a loving, trusting relationship with the caregiver Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt 18 months to 3 yearsToilet Training Child needs to develop physical skills and control of its bodily functions Initiative vs. Guilt3 to 6 yearsIndependence Child becomes more assertive and takes more initiative  too assertive can be bad Industry vs. Inferiority6 to 12 yearsSchool Child must manage learning new skills and succeeding in new situations Identity vs. Role Confusion AdolescencePeer Relationships Teen needs to achieve identity in occupation (school/work), gender roles, politics, and religion Intimacy vs. IsolationYoung AdulthoodLove Relationships Young adults develop intimate relationships Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle AdulthoodParenting/ Mentoring Adult needs to find ways to support/satisfy the next generation Ego Integrity vs. Despair Late AdulthoodReflection on and acceptance of one’s life Attains a sense of acceptance of oneself and a sense of fulfillment

14 Discussion How does modern technology affect the development of identity for today’s students? What factors/outcomes might come into play when developing one’s racial or ethnic identity?

15 Theories of Moral Development Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development Preconventional – Stage 1  Obedience Orientation – Stage 2  Rewards/Exchange Orientation Conventional – Stage 3  Being Nice/Relationships Orientation – Stage 4  Law and Order Orientation Postconventional (Principled) – Stage 5  Social Contract Orientation – Stage 6  Universal Ethical Principles Orientation Nucci’s Domains of Moral Development Moral – Young Children  Justice means equal treatment for everyone – Special needs might alter what is truly equal treatment – Integration of equality and caring in social relationships – Adults  Moral principles are independent of group expectations  morality involves beneficence and fairness Conventional – Young Children  Norms/regularities they can see are the right way to do things – Realize conventions are arbitrary when they see exceptions to norms – Understand rules are in place to maintain order  people in charge make the rules – Adolesence  View conventions as society’s standards which are widely accepted/applied and rarely altered – Adults  Conventions are useful tools in social realms but not static Personal – Children evolve by differentiating between decisions/actions which come from personal choice and those which are imposed upon them

16 Discussion What is the difference between Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, and Theory of Mind? How do these develop over time? How might a disability affect children’s development of these concepts?

17 Summary While children are going to school they are constantly changing and evolving their belief systems about themselves, the society around them, and their concepts of what is right and wrong. In order for teachers to be able to properly help their students to maneuver the changes they are experiencing it is important for them to keep up to date on current research which explores not only childhood development but also looks into the differences in development between cultures as well as racial and ethnic minority groups. Many educational theories tend to focus on European Americans as the subject of study and it is crucial to understand that that is only one group of students. In order to be the best possible teacher one must consider all the different aspects of their students’ ecosystems in order to best understand and respond to their various behaviors.

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