Kohlberg believed that children develop a moral code and awareness of respect, empathy & love through interactions with others
Preconventional Stages: develops in the first 9 years of life 1. Obediance & Punishment Sense of right & wrong Individualism & Exchange Right & wrong determined by rewards
Conventional Stages: adolescence 3. “Good boy/ Nice Girl” Classifying moral behavior as to whether it will help or please 4. Law & Order Stage Equate being good with respecting authority & obeying the law
Postconventional Stages about 10-15% of population reaches these 5. Social Contract/Individual Rights Recognition that rights can supersede laws that are restrictive or destructive in nature 6. Universal Ethical Principles Your own conscious becomes the ultimate judge, commit yourself to equal rights & respect for all above all else. Have great sense and respect for justice.
Erikson’s Theory of 8 Stage Development Everyone is born with a purpose, and they work towards that purpose through 8 stages of conflicts throughout life.
1. Trust v. Mistrust Infants needs are met or neglected – this shapes their ability to trust.
2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toddlers explore the world and feel shame from failures & reprimands. This shapes their development of will power through negotiating the experiences of success & failure
3. Initiative vs. Guilt Children act creatively and are playful with purpose. Severe punishments at this stage can inflict paralyzing feelings of guilt.
4. Industry vs. Inferiority Education & learning social skills marks this stage. Provides feelings of confidence, although could potentially lead to the equation of self-worth with productivity
5. Ego-Identity vs. Role Confusion Sense of who we are while considering the past, present and future. Exploring different interests, opinions, perspectives & niches until we find where we “fit” Erikson coined the phrase “identity crisis”
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation Build close relationships & experience love. Also exposures to heartbreak and rejection.
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation Finding pride in your work on behalf of future generations or through social activism. Stagnation being a sense of ‘stuckness’; a lack of legacy.
8. Ego-Integrity vs. Despair Either feeling satisfied & at peace with the holistic view of your life lived OR a sense of despair over the reality of impending death.