Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO SPORT PSYCHOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:
1 INTRODUCTION TO SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Damon Burton & Andy GillhamUniversity of Idaho
2 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY BASICS What is sport psychology?What do sport psychologists do?How old is the profession?What are the key events in the history of sport psychology?What career options are available?
3 ORIGINS OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Psychology has a Greek derivationPsyche means “mind or spirit”Logos means “sayings or speakings of”Literally means “speakings of the mind”Definitions of PsychologyWilliam James (1890): “The science of mental life”Current Definition: “The study of behavior”Scope of Disciplinefrom animals to humansfrom nerve cells to attitudes and personality
4 ACADEMIC ORIGINS OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Biological SciencesSocial SciencesPhysical SciencesBiomechanicsPsychologyExercise PhysiologySport Sociology Cultural AnthropologySport Psychology Social Psychology of Sport Motor Learning Motor Development Motor Control
5 TWO TYPES OF QUESTIONSHow do psychological factors impact sport and exercise?How do sport and exercise influence psychological development?
6 HOW PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IMPACT SPORT How does anxiety affect a basketball player’s free-throw shooting accuracy?Does self-confidence influence a child’s ability to learn to swim?How does coach reinforcement and punishment influence team cohesion?Does imagery training facilitate the recovery process in injured athletes and exercisers?
7 IMPACT OF SPORT ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT Does running reduce anxiety and depression?Do young athletes learn aggression from participating in youth sports?Does PE class participation facilitate children’s self-esteem development?Does participation in college athletics enhance character development?
8 HISTORY OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Early Years ( )Griffith Era ( )Dark Ages ( )Contemporary Era (1965-present)
9 BASICS OF ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES ResearchConsultationTeaching
10 EARLY YEARS (1895-1924) Research Triplett (1899): 1st social psychology experiment,lab based procedures,topics focused on personality and motor learningTeaching – noneConsultation -- none
11 GRIFFITH ERA (1925-1938) Research Teaching conducted a systematic program of theoretical and applied researchlab-basedtopics focused on motor learning and sport performance (e.g., football stance)Teachingdeveloped sport psychology class and taught principles in several classes
12 GRIFFITH ERA (1925-1938) Consulting wrote books Psychology of Coaching Psychology and Athleticsoutlined functions of sport psychologistsconsulted with a wide variety of Illinois athletic teamsconsulted with 1938 Chicago Cubs to improve hitting
13 GOALS FOR SPORT PSYCHOLOGISTS Observe the best coaches and teachers, record the psychological principles they use and convey these principles to new teachers and coaches.Adapt the information gained in the psychological lab to sport.Use the scientific method and the experimental lab to discover principles which will aid in answering specific problems of teachers and coaches.
14 DARK AGES (1939-1964) Research Teaching Consultation little systematic lab-based researchAlan Slater-Hammel -- motor learningEmma McCloy -- motor abilitiesTeachingJohn Lawther (1951) Psychology and CoachingConsultationminimal consultation being conducted
15 CONTEMPORARY ERA (1965-PRESENT) ResearchIn 1965, 1st International Congress of Sport Psychology in RomeResearch mushroomed to help develop a strong knowledge baseIn 1967, North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) founded.In 1979, Journal of Sport Psychology started to publish research
16 CONTEMPORARY ERA (1965-PRESENT) ResearchIn 1981, Martens’ Smocks to Jocks articles promoted field researchIn 1986, Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP) founded,In 1987, APA Division 47 – Sport & Exercise Psychology foundedIn 1987, The Sport Psychologist started
17 CONTEMPORARY ERA (1965-PRESENT) ResearchIn 1989, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology foundedTeachingSpecialized courses and graduate programs developed in late 1960’sIn 1972, 6 grad programs in U.S.Today, over 140 grad programsTextbooks and supplemental materials developed (e.g., over 30 texts today)
18 CONTEMPORARY ERA (1965-PRESENT) ConsultationIn 1967, Ogilvie and Tutko wrote Problem Athletes & How to Handle ThemIn 1981, Martens pioneered “psychological skills” conceptIn 1983, USOC developed Sport Psychology Registry to deal with quality controlIn 1983, Burton 1st paid sport psychologist in university athletic program
19 CONTEMPORARY ERA (1965-PRESENT) ConsultationIn 1984, NASPSPA certification vote prompted development of AAASPIn 1989, AAASP approved “certification” of sport psychology consultantsToday, most professional and Olympic teams have sport psychologistsOnly about 20 universities have full-time sport psychologists.
20 EDUCATIONAL VERSUS CLINICAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Educational Sport PsychologyXNormal BehaviorSupernormal BehaviorAbnormal Behaviordevelop mental skillssolve problems
21 CLINICAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGISTS (CSP) Trained as clinical or counseling psychologists (i.e., licensed by state).CSPs deal with clients who have some type of psychological problem (i.e., neuroses & psychoses),Their goal is to help person function normally in daily life by overcoming psychological problem(s).Therapy often lasts months, and even years, using intense, one-on-one psychotherapy sessions to identify and correct problems (i.e., psychoanalysis).
22 EDUCATIONAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGISTS (ESP) Trained in sport/exercise science programs to teach “mental skills,”Deal with clients who are psychologically normal but have to perform in ultra intense, pressure-packed situations (i.e., Superbowl, Olympics, Masters or Wimbleton),ESPs are “mental coaches” whose goal is to help athletes develop “super normal” mental skills necessary to (a) perform optimally in challenging situations, (b) experience personal highlights and (c) develop to their full potential.
23 FOCUS OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGY CONSULTATION achieve optimal performance or Flow – play your best when your best is neededmaximize personal development in sport and life by optimizing mental skills – develop the athlete and the personpromote optimal experiences – create personal highlights23
24 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY ORGANIZATIONS Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)APA Division 47 – Sport & Exercise Psychology (DIV-47)North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA)
25 ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF APPLIED SPORT PSYCHOLOGY (AAASP) This organization is designed to promote research and practice in applied sport and exercise psychology. Three specialty areas focus onhealth/ exercise psychology,intervention-performance enhancement,social psychology
26 APA DIVISION 47 - SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest professional psychology organization in the U.S. Division 47 is one of the newest of APA’s almost 50 divisions. Division 47 emphasizes both research and practice in sport psychology.
27 NORTH AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPORT & PHYSICAL ACTIVITY NASPSPA is the oldest organization focusing on the psychological aspects of sport and physical activity. The organization’s main focus is on research in the sub-disciplines ofmotor development,motor learning and control, andsport and exercise psychology.
28 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY JOURNALS Journal of Applied Sport Psychology (JASP)Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology (JSEP)The Sport Psychologist (TSP)
29 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY JOURNALS Journal of Applied Sport PsychologyBegun in 1989, JASP is the official journal of AAASP and publishes applied sport psychology research and professional practice articles.Journal of Sport and Exercise PsychologyJSEP publishes basic and applied sport and exercise psychology research. Begun in 1979, it is the oldest and most-respected research journal in the field.
30 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY JOURNALS The Sport PsychologistTSP began publication in 1987 and publishes both applied research and professional practice articles designed to facilitate the delivery of psychological services to coaches and athletes.
31 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY CAREER FIELDS college teachingperformance enhancement consultinghealth and exercise psychologistsports medicine psychologist
32 COLLEGE TEACHING Position Availability - 200+ positions in U.S. Salary Range - $35-100,000Job Responsibilitiesteach grad and undergrad coursesconduct and publish researchmentor graduate studentssecure grants to fund researchconsult with coaches & athletes
33 COLLEGE TEACHING Professional Competencies good teaching skills good research skillsgood helping skillsability to juggle a variety of projects and roles.
34 PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT CONSULTANT Position Availability – 3-5,000 PE consultants in U.S.Salary Range - $35-300,000Job Responsibilitiessee clinical patients 6-8 hours dailybe on call for clients in crisismay travel with junior playersconsult with high school, college and pro athletes and teams (50% practice)
35 PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT CONSULTANT Professional Competenciesgood helping skillsenjoy helping others solve their problemsindependence & self-sufficiencybusiness skills to run practice
36 HEALTH & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGIST Position Availability – 1000’s of private and corporate fitness facilities in U.S.Salary Range - $20-200,000Job Responsibilitiesdevelop programs to attract new clientsmodify existing programs to minimize dropoutsprovide workshops on psych factors that influence exercise & health
37 HEALTH & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGIST Job Responsibilities (cont’d)train other personnel to enhance sensitivity of psych factorsconduct applied exercise psych researchconsult with high school, college and pro athletes and teams (50% practice)
38 HEALTH & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGIST Professional Competenciesgood teaching skillswell-developed consultation and helping skills,skill to develop programs that will appeal to a broad range of clientsability to juggle a variety of projects and roles
39 SPORT MEDICINE PSYCHOLOGIST Position Availability – 1000’s of private clinics and hospitals in U.S.Salary Range - $25-250,000Job Responsibilitiespromote psych aspects of rehabilitationteach clients the value of health and exercise in quality of lifeteach pain management strategiespromote injury and disease prevention
40 SPORTS MEDICINE PSYCHOLOGIST Professional Competenciesgood consultation & helping skillsability to work with other members of sports medicine teamunderstanding of how mental factors influence illness & injurystrong desire to help others
41 BEST SPORT PSYCHOLOGY CONSULTANTS likeable and perceived as having something very applied and concrete to offerflexible and knowledgeable enough to meet individual needs by providing athlete inputaccessible enough to establish a rapport with individual athletes and to care about what happened to them
42 BEST SPORT PSYCHOLOGY CONSULTANTS stared working with a team at least 9 months prior to the Olympics and most had begun an ongoing mental training program 2-3 years priorhad multiple contacts with individual athletes, usually beginning with the first training camp of the yearconducted several follow-up sessions with individual athletes before and during the competitive season
43 WORST SPORT PSYCHOLOGY CONSULTANTS poor interpersonal skills (e.g., not liked by athletes, viewed as wimpy or domineering, wanted the athlete to carry their bags, turned people off with their personality, didn’t fit in)ineffectively applied psychology to sport (e.g., not applied enough or didn’t fit the sport or situation in training or competition)
44 POOR SPORT PSYCHOLOGY CONSULTANTS lacked sensitivity or flexibility to individual needs (did not adapt input to meet the needs of different individuals on the team, weren’t flexible to individual needs, imposed own methodology on everyone)limited contact with athletes (too much group work, too many lectures, not enough one-on-one time)
45 POOR SPORT PSYCHOLOGY CONSULTANTS demonstrated inappropriate application of consulting skills on-site at a competition or inappropriate behavior on site (e.g., crowding athlete, staring at athletes, getting athlete to fill out forms or answer questions just before competing), thereby altering the athlete’s familiar pre-event preparation pattern
46 POOR SPORT PSYCHOLOGY CONSULTANTS had bad timing (i.e., their involvement began too close to major international event, or in some cases even at an international event, without knowing athletes beforehand)did not provide enough consultant input or feedback (i.e., contact with athlete was too infrequent, particularly ongoing feedback was too limited to make a difference)
47 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY BASICS What type of training is required to become a sport psychologist?mastersPh.D.How do students find out about graduate school?AASP Graduate DirectoryHow do I find out more about sport psychology?Books, journals, conferences