2 What is Exercise & Sport Psychology? Study of human thought, emotion, and behavior in PATwo main objectives:1. To understand how psychological factors affect in individual’s performance2. To understand how participation in sport and exercise affects one’s psychological development, health, and well-being.
3 ABC’s of Exercise & Sport Psychology A = affect (emotion)How do anxiety or anger influence performance?B = behavior (actions)Why are some people so committed to a PA routine and others not?C = cognition (thoughts)Why do some athletes choke under pressure?
4 Exercise PsychologyExercise Psychology: devoted to the study of the psychological aspects of fitness, exercise, health, and wellnessAreas of interest:Exercise and mental healthWhat is the relationship between PA and mental health?Exercise adherenceWhat behavioral factors are related to exercise adherence?
5 Exercise Psychology Exercise & Mental Health Exercise Adherence Psychological outcomes of PA, e.g. anxiety and depressionAcute versus chronic exerciseExercise Adherence50% of those that start new PA program drop out within first 6 monthsAdherence = regular participation 60-80% of time
6 Employment Opportunities for Exercise Psychology College/UniversityTeach, work on developing theory & conducting research on psychological benefits of PACorporationWorksite health promotionCommunityDevelop fitness & wellness programs for a recreation departmentClinicConsultant for medical/PT clinic to help injured individuals through psychological aspects of injury rehabilitation
7 Sport PsychologySport Psychology: the study of mental factors related to improving competitive sport performanceAreas of interest:Personality characteristicsDo personality influence athletic performance?Pre-performance anxietyWhat is the relationship between preperformance anxiety and sports performance?Performance enhancement techniquesWhich performance enhancement techniques are more successful?
8 Sport Psychology Personality characteristics Pre-performance anxiety Conflicting results on the impact of personality on performance early on.A negative relationship exists b/w psychopathology and performance (Morgan, 1985)Pre-performance anxietyRelationship b/w preperformance anxiety and sports performanceMore than 30 different anxiety measures
9 Sport Psychology Performance enhancement techniques Psychological interventions to improve sports performanceMental ImageryInternalized mental rehearsalGoal SettingAttainment of a specific level of proficiency on a taskMotivationWhat success and failure mean to that individualIntrinsic versus Extrinsic MotivationConfidence EnhancementBelief that one will be successful. Based on state and trait properties
10 Sport Psychology Considered a graduate-level field Some schools offer undergraduate minorsFully credentialed ‘sport psychologist’ advanced degree in sports psychology required
11 Employment Opportunities for Sports Psychology College/universityteaching, research, working with collegiate athletic programProfessional sports teamsconsulting sport psychologist for individual athletes or teamsUnited States Olympic Committee national teamsUnited States militaryvarious motivational and behavioral functionsClinical psychologist
12 Sport and Exercise Psychology Orientations: Psychophysiological Orientation:Best way to study behavior during sport / exercise is by examining physiological processes in the brain; brain-body connectionsExamples:Using biofeedback to train biathletes to shoot between heartbeatsExamining changes in serotonin as explanation for psychological benefit of exercise
13 Sport and Exercise Psychology Orientations: 2. Social Psychological OrientationAssumption is behavior is determined by interchange between person and their environmentExamples:How does leader behavior influence team cohesion?Are people with high “esteem” more comfortable in same-gender exercise settings?
14 Sport and Exercise Psychology Orientations: Cognitive-Behavioral Orientation:Emphasis is on athlete’s / exercisers thoughts and behaviorsExamples:Is there a self-fulfilling prophecy linking self-talk and batting slumps?What does an exceptional athlete think about when “in the game”Can game preparation be influenced?
15 Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology QuestionnairesPsychological inventories: standardized measures of specific forms of thoughts, feelings, or behaviorsInterviewsStructured, systematic to gain in-depth understanding of individuals’ beliefs, experiences or values
16 Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology ObservationsIn field observation of behavior to study a phenomena naturallyPhysiological MeasuresPhysical, mental, and emotional responses (biofeedback) including muscle tension and brain wavese.g. blood pressure and heart rate to assess effects of psychological stressors on individuals