Presentation on theme: "LESSON PLANNING “Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?” asked Alice. “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said."— Presentation transcript:
1 LESSON PLANNING“Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?” asked Alice.“That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the Cheshire Cat.Carroll (1963)
2 INTRODUCTIONTeachers need to plan what they want to do in their classroomsA daily lesson plan is a written description of how students will move toward attaining specific objectives.It describes the teaching behavior that will result in student learning.The success with which a teacher conducts a lesson is often thought to depend on the effectiveness with which the lesson was planned (Richards, 1998).Lesson planning is defined as the daily decisions a teacher makes for the successful outcome of a lesson.
3 LESSON PLANNING WHY PLAN? MODELS OF LESSON PLANNING HOW TO PLAN A LESSON
4 LESSON PLANNINGIMPLEMENTING THE PLANEVALUATING THE PLANCONCLUSION
5 WHY PLAN? Plans provide security in the classroom atmosphere Lesson planning to fulfill a requirementLesson plan inside teachers’ headElaborate daily planProvide a record of what has been taughtProvide a map for the teacher to followProvide a structure for a lessonHelp teachers to anticipate problems and difficultiesPlans help to think about content, materials, sequencing, timing and activities.Plans provide security in the classroom atmosphere
6 MODELS OF LESSON PLANNING Tyler (1994)Specify objectivesSelect learning activitiesOrganize learning activitiesSpecify methods of evaluationTaylor (1970)Focus on the learner’s needs and interests
7 MODELS OF LESSON PLANNING Yinger(1980)Problem conception: integration on teachers’ goals, knowledge, and experienceSolution of problemPlan implementation along with its evaluation (past and future events in the classroom).
8 MODELS OF LESSON PLANNING Bailey (1996)Serve the common good.Teach to the momentFurther the lessonAccommodate the students’ learning stylesPromote students’ involvementDistribute the wealth
9 HOW TO PLAN A LESSON DEVELOPING THE PLAN Objectives: Describe the destination we want our students to reachMust be clearHelp state precisely what we want our students to learnGuide the selection of appropriate activitiesHelp provide overall lesson focus and directionShow the way to evaluate what students havelearned at the end of the lessonAction verbs are suggested: identify, present, describe, explain, demonstrate, list, contrast, and debate.
10 HOW TO PLAN A LESSON STAGES Perspective or opening: ask questions about previous activities, what was learnedStimulation: Think about the coming activity, relate the activity to their lives, tell anecdotes, take into account background knowledge.Instruction/participation: presentation, checking understanding, student involvement.Closure: students’ feelings, learning achievements, anticipation of future lessons.Follow-up: reinforcing topic, independent work, tasks, homework
11 HOW TO PLAN A LESSON Evaluating the plan: Evaluation as a component to assess the success of the students or the adjustments to make for the next lesson.Student learning as the most important criterionStudent involvement and engagementThe materialsLanguage use (communication)Student motivation
12 CONCLUSIONTeachers must allow themselves flexibility to plan in their own way.Objectives must be the starting pointA lesson plan is like a road map which describes where the teacher hopes to go in a lessonTeachers can deviate from the lesson plan depending on the actuality of the classroomLesson plans must keep up the students’ interest and motivationEvaluation permits teachers to assess students’ drawbacks and achievements.
13 REFERENCESRichards, J. & Renandya, W. (2002) Methodology for Language Teaching, An Anthology of Current Practice, Cambridge University Press.