Presentation on theme: "LESSON PLANNING “Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?” asked Alice. “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said."— Presentation transcript:
LESSON PLANNING “Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?” asked Alice. “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the Cheshire Cat. Carroll (1963)
INTRODUCTION Teachers need to plan what they want to do in their classrooms A daily lesson plan is a written description of how students will move toward attaining specific objectives. It describes the teaching behavior that will result in student learning. The success with which a teacher conducts a lesson is often thought to depend on the effectiveness with which the lesson was planned (Richards, 1998). Lesson planning is defined as the daily decisions a teacher makes for the successful outcome of a lesson.
LESSON PLANNING WHY PLAN?MODELS OF LESSON PLANNINGHOW TO PLAN A LESSON
LESSON PLANNING IMPLEMENTING THE PLANEVALUATING THE PLANCONCLUSION
WHY PLAN? Elaborate daily plan Lesson plan inside teachers’ head Lesson planning to fulfill a requirement Help teachers to anticipate problems and difficulties Provide a structure for a lesson Provide a map for the teacher to follow Provide a record of what has been taught P lans help to think about content, materials, sequencing, timing and activities. Plans provide security in the classroom atmosphere
MODELS OF LESSON PLANNING Tyler (1994) 1.Specify objectives 2.Select learning activities 3.Organize learning activities 4.Specify methods of evaluation Taylor (1970) Focus on the learner’s needs and interests
MODELS OF LESSON PLANNING Yinger(1980) 1.Problem conception: integration on teachers’ goals, knowledge, and experience 2.Solution of problem 3.Plan implementation along with its evaluation (past and future events in the classroom).
MODELS OF LESSON PLANNING Bailey (1996) Serve the common good. Teach to the moment Further the lesson Accommodate the students’ learning styles Promote students’ involvement Distribute the wealth
HOW TO PLAN A LESSON DEVELOPING THE PLAN o Objectives: o Describe the destination we want our students to reach o Must be clear o Help state precisely what we want our students to learn o Guide the selection of appropriate activities o Help provide overall lesson focus and direction o Show the way to evaluate what students have learned at the end of the lesson o Action verbs are suggested: identify, present, describe, explain, demonstrate, list, contrast, and debate.
HOW TO PLAN A LESSON STAGES o Perspective or opening: ask questions about previous activities, what was learned o Stimulation: Think about the coming activity, relate the activity to their lives, tell anecdotes, take into account background knowledge. o Instruction/participation: presentation, checking understanding, student involvement. o Closure: students’ feelings, learning achievements, anticipation of future lessons. o Follow-up: reinforcing topic, independent work, tasks, homework
HOW TO PLAN A LESSON Evaluating the plan: Evaluation as a component to assess the success of the students or the adjustments to make for the next lesson. Student learning as the most important criterion Student involvement and engagement The materials Language use (communication) Student motivation
CONCLUSION Teachers must allow themselves flexibility to plan in their own way. Objectives must be the starting point A lesson plan is like a road map which describes where the teacher hopes to go in a lesson Teachers can deviate from the lesson plan depending on the actuality of the classroom Lesson plans must keep up the students’ interest and motivation Evaluation permits teachers to assess students’ drawbacks and achievements.
REFERENCES Richards, J. & Renandya, W. (2002) Methodology for Language Teaching, An Anthology of Current Practice, Cambridge University Press.