Presentation on theme: "Designing Instruction Objectives, Indirect Instruction, and Differentiation Adapted from required text: Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice."— Presentation transcript:
Designing Instruction Objectives, Indirect Instruction, and Differentiation Adapted from required text: Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice by Gary D. Borich and How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms by Carol Ann Tomlinson
Lesson Objectives should: Use action verbs when stating the objective Be specific, not general Indicate what you will see the learner do as a result of the lesson Should be written and orally communicated each day Should be used in the closure of the day’s lesson
Behavioral Objectives Specify learning outcomes by using action verbs State criterion level to establish degree of performance required to meet learning objective Identify learning conditions under which learning will occur Using manipulatives, the student will correctly solve 8 out of 10 problems involving addition facts up to 10.
Developing Objectives Objectives need to be developed with the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains in mind. Objectives requiring higher level skills in these domains are more likely to represent the types of tasks your learners will encounter in the world they live in.
Cognitive Domain knowledge comprehension application analysis synthesis evaluation Requires least from student Requires most from student
Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cognitive Domain) Knowledge ◦ Remember or recall information and recognize facts Example: Recite the Pledge of Allegiance Comprehension ◦ Translate or re-phrase what has been read or spoken Example: Please describe what the Pledge of Allegiance means to you?
Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cognitive Domain) Application ◦ Apply information learned to context different from the one it was learned Example: How can you apply the Pledge of Allegiance to your everyday life? Analysis ◦ Break the problem down into component parts and draw relationships among the parts Example: Compare and contrast the Pledge of Allegiance with Canada’s Pledge of Allegiance?
Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cognitive Domain) Synthesis ◦ Combine parts to form a unique or novel solution to a problem Example: Create your own Pledge or Oath that you would live your life by? Evaluation ◦ Make decisions about the value or worth of ideas based on expressed criteria Example: Defend why the Pledge of Allegiance is important or not and defend your answer?
Affective Domain receivin g responding valuing organization characterization Requires least from student Requires most from student
Psychomotor Domain imitation manipulation precision articulation naturalization Requires least from student Requires most from student
Unit Planning Unit: Larger system of interrelated learning Vertical Planning: Emphasize hierarchy of the lesson content and task- relevant prior knowledge within a discipline Lateral Planning: Topics are integrated to provide a focus on a specific theme
Vertical Unit Planning Classify unit outcomes at a higher level than lesson outcomes in the taxonomies of behavior Plan instructional sequence so that the outcomes of previously taught lessons are instrumental in achieving outcomes of subsequent lessons Rearrange or add lesson content to provide task-relevant prior knowledge where needed
Lateral Unit Planning Identify an interdisciplinary theme Integrate bodies of knowledge across multiple disciplines Identify relationships and patterns that bind different aspects of our world
Strategies for Indirect Instruction Use of advanced organizers Conceptual movement – inductive and deductive Use of examples and non-examples Use of questions Use of student ideas Student self-evaluation Use of group discussion
Differentiated Instruction Designing differentiated instruction is similar to equalizer buttons on a radio. You can adjust the settings across several continuums to get the best sound. In students, you will adjust classroom materials, activities, strategies, etc., to maximize the challenge for various students.
Differentiated by Readiness Content (what) teacher chosen topic based on 1 work of literature vs. 3 works of literature unit on animal habitats: some students ready to classify animals by habitat and other students ready to study affect of climate on habitats Process (How) homework at varying degrees of difficulty direct instruction for each step modeling and independent work Product (Evaluation) requiring varying portions of rubrics students work with teacher to set goals for product require essay or computer presentation alternative assessments
Differentiated by Interest GOALS: Help students realize match between school and their own desires to learn Demonstrate connectedness between all learning Use skills or ideas familiar to students as a bridge to ideas or skills less familiar to them Enhance student motivation to learn EXAMPLES: Exploratory studies Student choice of tasks Independent study Jigsaw Interest groups Literature circles Student-selected audience WebQuests Group Investigations
Project-Based Learning Communicates to learners the importance of the learning process Helps the learner set goals and uses instructional groupings to elicit the cooperation of others in completing the project
Characteristics of a Good Project Extended Duration Linked to several content disciplines Focused on process as well as product Involve the teacher as coach and require small group collaboration