3Instructional Methods Basic teaching formats, such as lectures and discussions, used to develop specific learning activities. (Also called instructional strategies and teaching strategies.)Instructional Strategiesbasic teaching formats, such as lectures and discussions, used to develop specific learning activities. (Also called instructional methods and teaching strategies.
4Teaching Strategiesbasic teaching formats, such as lectures and discussions, used to develop specific learning activities. (Also called instructional methods and instructional strategies.)Blooms Taxonomyan analysis developed by Benjamin Bloom that is used as a basis for understanding and teaching various levels of thought by dividing thinking skills into six levels
5Open Ended Questionsquestions designed to require more than a few words as an answerWait Timea pause between asking a question and accepting an answer, designed to allow students to mentally process the question and to formulate their replies
6Pacingthe rate at which a teacher presents components of a lesson or the lessons throughout the dayClosurea summarizing process that helps student draw conclusions based on what they have learned
7Teacher Centered Methods teaching strategies in which the teacher’s role is to present the information and to direct the learning process of studentsLearner-Centered Methodsteaching strategies in which the teacher acts as a facilitator, or guide, but students are actively involved in directing and achieving their own learning
8Panel Discussiona discussion format in which a group of people present and discuss a topic and answer questionsModeratorin a panel discussion, the person responsible for the introduction, summary, and relaying questions to the panel
9Simulationslearning activities that put students in a situation that feels real even though the situation is notSkitsscripted stories that involve students in learning through acting out parts
10Role Playinga type of unscripted skit in which people take on particular roles and interact to resolve an issue or problemCase studiesa teaching strategy in which students analyze a particular problem or story that requires a solution
11Reflective Responsesa teaching strategy that asks students to think deeply about a situation and describe that thinking processProductive Laba lab experience that focuses on producing an end product
12Experimental Laba lab experience that uses formal processes to research problemsCooperative Learninga form of small-group learning that involves students working together to achieve a common goal
13Individual Accountability holding each person in a group responsible for participating and contributing
17The four key instructional skills are: a. questioning c. pacing b. using examplesc. pacingd. achieving closure
18As you develop questions, keep the following guidelines in mind: Teachers can encourage participation by:Plan questions along with the lesson. Ask questions of varying difficulty. Include open-ended questions.asking questions that are appropriate for students’ level of knowledge and experience, asking questions that generate interest, allowing wait time between asking a question and calling on a student to allow students to mentally process the question and formulate a reply, varying methods of asking for responses
19giving a thoughtful, respectful reply. Teachers can respond to students’ answers by:Teachers can respond to students’ questions by:helping students process learning by posing follow-up questions to the classgiving a thoughtful, respectful reply.If the question furthers the discussion, the teacher can provide an answer or counter with another question.
20Examples help bring information to life for learners. The use of example is effective questions by:When pacing, considering these pointsExamples help bring information to life for learners.The use of examples increases understanding and retention of subject matter.Examples can show how theory applies to the real world.Know your natural style. Look for signs of understanding.Alternate types of activities.Plan for smooth transitions.
21Achieving closure means helping students reflect on what they have learned, its purpose, and meaning. It helps students draw conclusions based on what they have learned. It helps them apply it and lends a sense of achievement.
23Teaching strategies are classified as: A. Teacher-centered methodsthe teacher’s role is to present the information that is to be learned and to direct the learning process of students. Students then practice what they have learned.B. Learner-centered methodsthe teacher acts as a facilitator, or guide, for learning. Students are more actively involved in directing and achieving their own learning.
24Lectures: a teacher presenting information orally and students learning through listening. Reading: one of the basic ways of learning information through textbooks, periodicals, Internet articles, and other researched materials.
25Discussion: help students explore options and ideas and develop key communication skills. They often begin with a stimulating question or problem based on a learning objective. Students can draw on their own knowledge and experiences. Demonstration: are the best way to teach a process when procedures are difficult to explain, or visual cues are important.
26Guest speakers: can bring outside expertise into the classroom and generate interest. Simulations: are used to put students in situations that feel real, even though they are not.
27Skits: involve acting out stories Skits: involve acting out stories. They are mini plays based on scripts written by the teacher or students.
28Role Playing: similar to a skit without a script Role Playing: similar to a skit without a script. The teacher clearly describes a situation that includes an issue or problem. Students act out the role of the people in the situation, basing their actions and conversations on how the person they represent would likely react. Playing their roles,students work through the situation or solve the problem.
29Case Studies: involve groups of students working together to analyze a situation called a “case.” A case is a description of a realistic problematic situation that requires a solution.Reflective Responses: require students to think deeply about an issue or something they have learned. They offer students the opportunity to be thoughtful and insightful.
30Labs: offer students the opportunity to work with materials, ideas, people, or processes to solve a given problemCooperative Learning: is a form of small-group learning in which everyone works together to achieve a common goal. The group is responsible for making sure all members participate, contribute, and learn.
31Student Presentations: give learners the opportunity to share what they have learned. Depending on the assignment, presentations may be oral, visual, or use both formats. Presentations help students build communication skills.Games: can be fun and challenging. They can also be used to reinforcelearning, build skills, and provoke thought.
34Questioning ☺ Plan questions along with the lesson ☺ Match learner objectives☺ Clearly worded☺ Keep lesson on track☺ Ask questions of varying difficulty☺ Use Bloom’s Taxonomy☺ Match questions to abilities of students☺ Include open-ended questions☺ Require more than a few words as an answer☺ Encourage higher-level thinking
35PacingPacing—The rate at which a teacher moves through the components of a lesson or the lessons throughout the day.To pace your lesson so students do not get bored or lost and fail to learn, consider the following points:a. Know your natural styleb. Look for signs of understandingc. Alternate types of activitiesd. Plan for smooth transitions