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Chapter 12 Instructional Methods “Teacher” by Sharleen Kato 1.

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1 Chapter 12 Instructional Methods “Teacher” by Sharleen Kato 1

2 VOCABULARY 2

3 Instructional Methods Basic teaching formats, such as lectures and discussions, used to develop specific learning activities. (Also called instructional strategies and teaching strategies.) Instructional Strategies basic teaching formats, such as lectures and discussions, used to develop specific learning activities. (Also called instructional methods and teaching strategies. 3

4 Teaching Strategies basic teaching formats, such as lectures and discussions, used to develop specific learning activities. (Also called instructional methods and instructional strategies.) Blooms Taxonomy an analysis developed by Benjamin Bloom that is used as a basis for understanding and teaching various levels of thought by dividing thinking skills into six levels 4

5 Open Ended Questions questions designed to require more than a few words as an answer Wait Time a pause between asking a question and accepting an answer, designed to allow students to mentally process the question and to formulate their replies 5

6 Pacing the rate at which a teacher presents components of a lesson or the lessons throughout the day Closure a summarizing process that helps student draw conclusions based on what they have learned 6

7 Teacher Centered Methods teaching strategies in which the teacher’s role is to present the information and to direct the learning process of students Learner-Centered Methods teaching strategies in which the teacher acts as a facilitator, or guide, but students are actively involved in directing and achieving their own learning 7

8 Panel Discussion a discussion format in which a group of people present and discuss a topic and answer questions Moderator in a panel discussion, the person responsible for the introduction, summary, and relaying questions to the panel 8

9 Simulations learning activities that put students in a situation that feels real even though the situation is not Skits scripted stories that involve students in learning through acting out parts 9

10 Role Playing a type of unscripted skit in which people take on particular roles and interact to resolve an issue or problem Case studies a teaching strategy in which students analyze a particular problem or story that requires a solution 10

11 Reflective Responses a teaching strategy that asks students to think deeply about a situation and describe that thinking process Productive Lab a lab experience that focuses on producing an end product 11

12 Experimental Lab a lab experience that uses formal processes to research problems Cooperative Learning a form of small-group learning that involves students working together to achieve a common goal 12

13 Individual Accountability holding each person in a group responsible for participating and contributing 13

14 Engaging Learners in Critical Thinking 14

15 Well-developed thinking skills are important because in this age of swiftly changing information, they prepare learners to deal with new situations and challenges. 15

16 Key Instructional Skills 16

17 The four key instructional skills are: a. questioning b. using examples c. pacing d. achieving closure 17

18 As you develop questions, keep the following guidelines in mind: Plan questions along with the lesson. Ask questions of varying difficulty. Include open-ended questions. Teachers can encourage participation by: asking questions that are appropriate for students’ level of knowledge and experience, asking questions that generate interest, allowing wait time between asking a question and calling on a student to allow students to mentally process the question and formulate a reply, varying methods of asking for responses 18

19 Teachers can respond to students’ answers by: helping students process learning by posing follow-up questions to the class Teachers can respond to students’ questions by: giving a thoughtful, respectful reply. If the question furthers the discussion, the teacher can provide an answer or counter with another question. 19

20 The use of example is effective questions by: Examples help bring information to life for learners. The use of examples increases understanding and retention of subject matter. Examples can show how theory applies to the real world. When pacing, considering these points Know your natural style. Look for signs of understanding. Alternate types of activities. Plan for smooth transitions. 20

21 Achieving closure means helping students reflect on what they have learned, its purpose, and meaning. It helps students draw conclusions based on what they have learned. It helps them apply it and lends a sense of achievement. 21

22 Basic Teaching Strategies 22

23 Teaching strategies are classified as: A. Teacher-centered methods the teacher’s role is to present the information that is to be learned and to direct the learning process of students. Students then practice what they have learned. B. Learner-centered methods the teacher acts as a facilitator, or guide, for learning. Students are more actively involved in directing and achieving their own learning. 23

24 Lectures: a teacher presenting information orally and students learning through listening. Reading: one of the basic ways of learning information through textbooks, periodicals, Internet articles, and other researched materials. 24

25 Discussion: help students explore options and ideas and develop key communication skills. They often begin with a stimulating question or problem based on a learning objective. Students can draw on their own knowledge and experiences. Demonstration: are the best way to teach a process when procedures are difficult to explain, or visual cues are important. 25

26 Guest speakers: can bring outside expertise into the classroom and generate interest. Simulations: are used to put students in situations that feel real, even though they are not. 26

27 Skits: involve acting out stories. They are mini plays based on scripts written by the teacher or students. 27

28 Role Playing: similar to a skit without a script. The teacher clearly describes a situation that includes an issue or problem. Students act out the role of the people in the situation, basing their actions and conversations on how the person they represent would likely react. Playing their roles, students work through the situation or solve the problem. 28

29 Case Studies: involve groups of students working together to analyze a situation called a “case.” A case is a description of a realistic problematic situation that requires a solution. Reflective Responses: require students to think deeply about an issue or something they have learned. They offer students the opportunity to be thoughtful and insightful. 29

30 Labs: offer students the opportunity to work with materials, ideas, people, or processes to solve a given problem Cooperative Learning: is a form of small-group learning in which everyone works together to achieve a common goal. The group is responsible for making sure all members participate, contribute, and learn. 30

31 Student Presentations: give learners the opportunity to share what they have learned. Depending on the assignment, presentations may be oral, visual, or use both formats. Presentations help students build communication skills. Games: can be fun and challenging. They can also be used to reinforce learning, build skills, and provoke thought. 31

32 Choosing Appropriate Teaching Strategies 32

33 When choosing teaching strategies, consider the following: student characteristics, subject matter, teaching situation. 33

34 Questioning ☺ Plan questions along with the lesson ☺ Match learner objectives ☺ Clearly worded ☺ Keep lesson on track ☺ Ask questions of varying difficulty ☺ Use Bloom’s Taxonomy ☺ Match questions to abilities of students ☺ Include open-ended questions ☺ Require more than a few words as an answer ☺ Encourage higher-level thinking 34

35 Pacing Pacing—The rate at which a teacher moves through the components of a lesson or the lessons throughout the day. To pace your lesson so students do not get bored or lost and fail to learn, consider the following points: a. Know your natural style b. Look for signs of understanding c. Alternate types of activities d. Plan for smooth transitions 35


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