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The Age of Jackson 1824-1844 Mr. Owens CC: Age of Jackson.

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1 The Age of Jackson 1824-1844 Mr. Owens CC: Age of Jackson

2 Essential Questions As democracy expanded, what were the key debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, between the branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens? Who were the key supporters and agendas of the Democrats and Whigs in the 1830s? How did government policy affect American Indians and what resulted from their attempt to resist expansion?

3 Jacksonian Democracy Rise of Democratic Society: equality, “self-made man” - Spread of newspapers & education Politics of the Common Man Universal (White) Male Suffrage – removal of property and tax requirements Party Nominating Conventions – gatherings in large meeting halls – death of “King Caucus” Popular Election of the President – voters choose electors Two-Party System – parties needed for elections & campaigning on a national level Rise of Third Parties – Anti-Mason’s, Working Man’s Party More elected offices – esp. state & local level Popular Campaigning- parades, floats, rallies with free food & drink “Spoils System” – rewarding supporters w/ federal jobs – office rotation after 1 term

4 Jackson vs. JQA Election of 1824: clear end to Good Feelings – D.R. split into 4 candidates: Jackson got most electoral votes, but not a majority. Decision in House – Clay supported JQA – Jackson supporters “Corrupt Bargain” John Quincy Adams agenda: internal improvements & national university – blocked by Jacksonians in Congress 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” – alienated southern planters raising rates on manufactured goods 1828 Election: Jackson “Old Hickory” easily defeats Adams in ugly “mudslinging” campaign with strong support from South (Calhoun as V.P.) & West

5 Jackson’s 1 st Term Frugal Jeffersonian on gov. spending, veto 12 bills (more than previous 6 presidents combined) “Kitchen-Cabinet” – relied on informal group of advisers & “Spoils System” Peggy Eaton Affair – scandal over Sec of War’s wife causing most of official cabinet to resign & V.P. John Calhoun 1 year later Indian Removal Act (1830) removal west of the Mississippi – Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) & Worcester v. Georgia (1832) – Marshall sides with Cherokee “Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.” - Jackson – Bureau of Indians Affairs (1836) to oversee removal – “Trail of Tears” Army marched 15,000 Cherokee to Oklahoma, 4,000 died on march (1838)

6 Nullification & Bank War Nullification Crisis SC “nullifies” 1828 Tariff 1830 Webster-Hayne Debate: Daniel Webster (MA) & Robert Hayne (SC) over state vs. federal power – “Our federal union, it must be preserved.” – Jackson – “The Union, next to our liberties, most dear!” John C. Calhoun 1832 Tariff – SC again nullifies Jackson responds with Force Bill & “Proclamation to the People of South Carolina” Clay gets a Compromise Tariff passed Bank War 1832 Clay gets Congress to recharter National Bank – Jackson vetoed the “hydra or corruption” hated Nicholas Biddle the bank’s president 1832 Election: Jackson defeats Clay with ¾ of the electoral vote

7 2 nd Two-Party System Democratic Party: similar to Jeffersonian Republicans, supporters of Jackson Whig Party: similar to Federalists headed by Clay, Calhoun & Webster

8 Jackson’s 2 nd Term & MVB Pet Banks: Jackson destroys BUS – new Sec of Treasury Roger Taney redistributes federal funds to state banks. BUS is dead by 1836. Specie Circular: 1836 fear of inflation federal land could only be purchased with specie (hard currency) control “wildcat banks” Roger Taney replaces John Marshall as Chief Justice in 1835 Election of 1836: Martin Van Buren defeats Whig strategy of running 3 regional candidates Panic of 1837: banknotes lost value, land sales plummeted, credit tightened, depression MVB & Democrats believed in laissez-faire & did nothing – Whigs blame them & make gains

9 Election of 1840 “Log Cabin and Hard Cider” Campaign Whigs: William Henry Harrison (war hero) & John Tyler – Tippecanoe & Tyler Too! Van Buren – depicted as an out of touch elitist & blamed for Panic of 1837 “Martin Van Ruin” Popular campaign – 78% of eligible voters voted Whigs out-common manned the party of the common man Harrison wins but dies of pneumonia 1 month after taking office – replaced by Tyler “His Accidency”

10 William Henry Harrison Campaign Song “ Tippecanoe and Tyler Too ” “ Tippecanoe and Tyler Too ” (Words and Music by "A member of the Fifth Ward Club “, 1840 Performed by They Might Be Giants) What has caus'd this great com-mo-tion, mo-tion, mot-ion our country through, It is the ball that's rolling on, For Tip-pi-ca-noe, and Ty-ler too, And with them we'll beat lit-tle Van, Van, Van is a used up man, And with them we'll beat lit-tle Van. Sure, let 'em talk about hard cider (cider cider) and log cabins too T'will only help to speed the ball for Tippecanoe and Tyler too and with him we'll beat Little Van, Van,Van is a used up man and with him we'll beat Little Van.

11 1840 Election Results

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