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The Age of Jackson, 1828- 1840 Empowerment of the “Common Man”

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of Jackson, 1828- 1840 Empowerment of the “Common Man”"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of Jackson, Empowerment of the “Common Man”

2 The “New Democracy”  Comparison to Jeffersonian Democracy –“government for the people” vs. “government done by the people” –Universal Manhood Suffrage!  No property qualifications –New Western States  Eastern States reduce voter requirements *Frederick Jackson Turner*

3 “The Significance of the Frontier in American History”  Cheap, available land has developed the “American character”. –Critics look for more complex thesis –Impact on Americans’ psyche

4 Rise of Workingman’s Parties  Laborers in the East –10 hour day –Education for children –No debtor’s prison –“Locos Focos”, 1820s

5 Causes of the New Democracy  Panic of 1819 –Speculators –BUS  McCullough v. Maryland, 1819  Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820) –Balance between Slave and Free  New Political Age –Two-Party system: Democrats vs. National Republicans, 1832  Replaces “Era of Good Feelings” –New style of campaigning –Demise of the caucus  Electoral College by popular vote  Nominating conventions

6 Election of 1824  Corrupt Bargain: Jackson vs. Adams –House of Representatives –Support of “American System”  Henry Clay, Secretary of State

7 The Tariff of Abominations, 1828  Congress increases Protective Tariff –Protective Tariff, 1816 –Tariff of 1824: 23% to 37% –Ploy by Jacksonians to defeat Adams  Election of 1828  John C. Calhoun’s “The Southern Carolina Exposition” –Theory of Nullification (Virginia/Kentucky Resolutions)

8 Election of 1828  A lot of “mudslinging” –The “Revolution of 1828”  First president from the West  No sitting president since John Adams  Voter turnout – Universal Manhood Suffrage

9 “Old Hickory’s” Administrations,  New section of the West –Hero of the Common Man –Hated American System –Defied the Supreme Court and Congress  Number of Vetoes  “King Andrew I”

10 Jacksonian Democracy  Increase in manhood suffrage –Use of State conventions  End of Caucus  Spoils System!!! –Martin Van Buren, “Albany Regency” –Rotation in office, “turn about is fair play” –Set precedent for “clean sweeps” –Political corruption

11 Jackson’s Cabinet and Resignation of Calhoun  “Kitchen Cabinet” –Unofficial 13 advisors  Webster-Hayne Debate, 1829  Cause: Bill to curb sale of public lands  Lasted 9 days in Senate  States’ Rights versus Federal Government –“Liberty and Union…”, articulation of Union  Jefferson Day Toast, 1830 –“Our Union, it must be preserved!”  Eaton Affair, 1832 –Peggy Eaton

12 Nullification Crisis, 1832  South still angry – Tariff of Abominations –Tariff of 1832 (35% from 45%) –South nullifies Tariff of 1832  Threatens secession –Clay proposed a compromise!  Tariff of 1833  Force Bill passed by Congress (face-saver)

13 Election of 1832  Clay versus Jackson –Clay’s American System –Jackson’s “Divorce Bill  End BUS (ploy by Clay) –Bank Wars (Nicholas Biddle)  McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)  BUS strengths: –Organized –Reduced Bank Failures –Issued sound Bank notes –Credit and currency available –Bank Wars (Nicholas Biddle)  McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)

14 “Pet” Banks  State banks –23 banks –Overseen by Roger B. Taney –Specie Circular: public lands bought with “hard” money

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