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AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM America: Past and Present Chapter 13.

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Presentation on theme: "AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM America: Past and Present Chapter 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM America: Past and Present Chapter 13

2 Presidents:

3 The Spirit of Young America ► Walt Whitman  From this hour I ordain myself loos’d of limits and imaginary line, Going where I list, my own master total and absolute... ► Herman Melville  Hereby perhaps Stubb indirectly hinted, that though man loved his fellow, yet man is a money-making animal, which propensity too often interferes with his benevolence.

4 Expansion and Borderlands-1830s ► Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles the northeast U.S.-Canadian boundary ► Americans begin settling in  Oregon territory (joint U.S., English claim)  New Mexico territory (owned by Mexico)  California (owned by Mexico)

5 Territorial Expansion by the Mid-Nineteenth Century

6 The Texas Revolution ► Mexican Independence ► Implications—CA and TX  Emancipate Indians  Rancheros  Empresarios ► Stephen F. Austin  1820s  300 Families ► Issues  "Anglos" never fully accept Mexican rule  Slavery abolished  Santa Anna--Dictator  armed rebellion

7 Texas Independence ► Garrison at Anahuac  June, 1835  William B. Travis ► Gonzales  October, 1835 ► San Antonio Siege  Stephen Austin ► Independence Declared  March 2, 1836  Republic of Texas

8 Texas Independence ► The Alamo  Santa Anna  William Travis  San Antonio  Feb. 23 – Mar. 6, 1836 ► “Remember the Alamo” ► Goliad  350 Texans executed ► San Jacinto  General Sam Houston  April 21, 1836

9 The Republic of Texas ► April, Santa Anna defeated ► May, Santa Anna’s treaty recognizes Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates) ► Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlers ► Annexation to U.S. refused by Jackson

10 Texas Revolution

11 Trails of Trade and Settlement ► Santa Fe Trail closed to U.S. travelers as a result of Mexico’s war with Texas ► Oregon Trail conduit for heavy stream of settlers to the Oregon country ► Oregon settlers demand an end to joint U.S., English occupation

12 The Mormon Trek: Westward Flight ► Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints  Joseph Smith, 1830  Revival of pure aboriginal American Christianity ► Mormons persecution  Flee New York for Nauvoo, Illinois  Murder of Joseph Smith  Brigham Young  Resettlement to Great Salt Lake in Utah

13 Western Trails

14 Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War ► Widespread call for annexation of newly- settled lands ► “Manifest Destiny” a slogan of those believing the U.S. divinely ordained to encompass Mexico and Canada

15 Tyler and Texas ► John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrison’s death ► Tyler breaks with Whigs ► Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re-election campaign issue ► Senate refuses to ratify ► Tyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay

16 The Triumph of Polk and Annexation ► Democratic nomination  James K. Polk  Expansionist platform ► Annexation of Texas for Southern vote ► U.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern vote ► Polk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansion ► Texas annexed before Polk inaugurated

17 Election of 1844

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19 The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny ► "Manifest destiny”  U.S., His chosen nation, to become stronger  Americans make new territories free and democratic  growing American population needs land ► Limits to American expansion undefined John L. O’Sullivan

20 Polk and the Oregon Question ► Polk to Great Britain  U.S. no more joint occupation  England prepares for war, proposes division of the area ► Treaty of 1846  Senate approves division of Oregon along 49 o north  U.S. gains Puget Sound ► North condemned Polk  “54 o 40’ or Fight”  Attention to Mexico  Pro-Slavery Focus?

21 Northwest Boundary Dispute

22 Expanding South & West: Mexico ► Republic of Texas  Disputed land claims  Between Nueces & Rio Grande Rivers ► Texas annexed-- disputed land claimed  Mexico breaks relations  Polk alerts troops  Polk sends John Slidell ► 1846  Gen. Zachary Taylor sent into disputed land

23 War with Mexico ► May 13, 1846  Gen. Zachary Taylor success in north Mexico  Colonel Stephen Kearney ► capture New Mexico ► Joins John C. Frémont in taking California early 1847 ► September, 1847  General Winfield Scott occupies Mexico City

24 Settlement of the Mexican-American War ► Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo  February, 1848  Rio Grande southern border  New Mexico & California ceded to U.S.  $15,000,000 payment ► Mexican War politically contentious  Whigs oppose  Slave Power expansion

25 The Mexican-American War

26 Internal Expansionism ► “Young Americans” link territorial growth to other material achievements  Telegraph—Samuel Morse  transportation improvements  growth of trade  mass immigration ► Discovery of California gold inspires transcontinental projects ► Territorial expansion wanes after 1848 ► Economic, population growth continues

27 The Triumph of the Railroad ► 1840s--railroad begins displacing canals ► Rail construction stimulates iron industry ► Railroads stimulate new forms of finance  bonds  preferred stock  government subsidies

28 Railroads, 1850 and 1860

29 The Industrial Revolution Takes Off ► Mass production  Division of labor  Production more efficient ► Factory system emerges  gather laborers in one place  cash wages  “continuous process" ► Agriculture mechanized ► Northern economy based on interaction of industry, transportation, agriculture

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31 Mass Immigration Begins ►  4 million Irish, Germans immigrate to U.S.  Most come for higher wages  Immigrants fill low- paying jobs in port cities  Irish influx ► Low immigrant wages  Contribute to slums  Urban reform movement results

32 Immigration to the United States,

33 The New Working Class ► 1840s--factory labor  shifting from women, children to men  Immigrants dominate new working class  Employers less involved with laborers ► Post-1837  more work for less pay  Unions organized  Increasing immigration

34 The Costs of Expansion ► Working class poses problem for ideals  working for wages assumed the first step toward becoming one’s own master  new class of permanent wage-earners conflicts with old ideal ► Economic expansion creates conflicts between classes ► Territorial expansion creates conflicts between sections ► Conflicts increasingly uncontrollable


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