Presentation on theme: "Manifest Destiny 1840s. Manifest Destiny First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. What does it mean? The belief that it was a God-given."— Presentation transcript:
Manifest Destiny 1840s
Manifest Destiny First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. What does it mean? The belief that it was a God-given right to expand west for Americans.
Overland Immigration to the West 1840 - 1860→ more than 250,000 people travel west!!
Who and Why go West? * Southerners -->new land for cotton * Mormons -->escape persecution-->Great Salt Lake * Americans--cheap land and gold-- >California (1849) * “Oregon Fever” = Americans establish farms on fertile land
But American expansion is not without its problems - Expansion will bring about disputes both within the US & with our foreign neighbors
Conflict with Great Britain Boundary line between Maine & British- controlled Canada was unclear * Dispute w/ GB ends with = The Webster- Ashburton Treaty
The Oregon Dispute Both the US & GB claimed Oregon Treaty of 1818 = US and GB would have control of Oregon until issue could be resolved permanently
American settlement Mexico gains independence from Spain → invites American settlers to TEJAS to develop territory 1 st American settlers successfully led by Stephen Austin * By 1830, Americans outnumber Mexicans in Tejas by 3 to 1!
Friction between American settlers & Mexican government: * When …. new rules to tighten Mexican control of Tejas: Ban further American immigration 1829 – Mexico abolished slavery Americans (plantation owners) reaction--> --refused to follow these new regulations –Land hungry American southerners continued to stream into Tejas
Road to Texas Independence General Santa Ana becomes dictator: abolished local self-rule! → revolts break out across Mexico * Americans under Sam Houston declare Texas to be independent (1836)
Texas Declaration of Independence
The Republic of Texas
Remember the Alamo!
Texas Independence * Alamo 1836– Americans defeated * Goliad – Americans defeated again! Santa Ana’s soldiers execute any prisoners * San Jacinto – Mexican defeat; Santa Ana captured & forced to recognize Texan independence * Grants Texas all land north of the Rio Grande River * BUT: Mexican gov’t still considers Texas a MEXICAN TERRITORY
Texas requests admission to Union Newly “independent” Texas faced financial problems → Texas president Sam Houston requests admission to Union North = opposed to addition of more slave territory Why? Texas if admitted could be made into as many as 4 or 5 states, particularly SLAVE states This would upset balance between free & slave in Congress
Texas not admitted yet; looks to Britain for help!!! President John Tyler (slaveowner) sees chance to annex this HUGE territory slipping away! * Tyler works for annexation, but doesn’t get 2/3 vote for approval
The election of 1844: Texas becomes an issue! * The candidates: Henry Clay = tried to avoid issue of annexation James K Polk = openly in favor of expansion & manifest destiny –US should annex Texas & California –Demanded total American control of the Oregon Territory: “Fifty-four forty or fight!” James K. Polk wins!
Texas is annexed Lame-duck means: OUTGOING PRESIDENT; POLICIES ARE NOT REALLY THE FOCUS ANYMORE Lame-duck President Tyler still works to annex Texas Persuades Congress to annex Texas using a “joint resolution of Congress” → required only a simple majority (50%=1) Mexico’s reaction--> fury! Anger! War is coming!!!!
In class assignment: What were the causes and results of this conflict?
The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 * Attempt to avoid war → John Slidell sent to Mexico→ offers to purchase Texas →Mexico refuses! * Mexico says “TEXAS BELONGS TO US!” * Attempt to avoid war → John Slidell sent to Mexico→ offers to purchase Texas →Mexico refuses! * Mexico says “TEXAS BELONGS TO US!” John Slidell
President Polk prepares for war * War with Mexico seems unavoidable: Pres. Polk doesn’t want war with GB AND MEXICO –compromises with GB over US- Canada Boundary →now, it will be the 49 th parallel instead of 54°40′ Orders US troops into disputed area between Texas and Mexico
Why does Polk negotiate with GB but seems ready to fight Mexico? * Mexico is a weaker enemy – US more assured of success
Meanwhile…California tries to follow the “Texas example” →revolt in 1845 →The Bear Flag Republic, then ask for admission to the Union
President Polk asks for a declaration of war * But North & South deeply divided over war! WHY? Wilmot Proviso → North’s plan for NO SLAVERY in territory that U.S. wins from Mexican War does not pass – slavery issue not solved
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 * Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. * Mexico gave the U. S. California to New Mexico – The Mexican Cession. * Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. * Mexico gave the U. S. California to New Mexico – The Mexican Cession. The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!
The Mexican Cession
Results of the Mexican War? 1)THINK: WHAT WILL BE A KEY ISSUE FOR THE NEXT DECADE JUST BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR? Would slavery be allowed into these new territories? 2) Mexican-American War marks a turning point in relations between the US and all of Latin America 1)THINK: WHAT WILL BE A KEY ISSUE FOR THE NEXT DECADE JUST BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR? Would slavery be allowed into these new territories? 2) Mexican-American War marks a turning point in relations between the US and all of Latin America