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Chapter 19 From Sea to Shining Sea: American Expansion 1820–1848.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 From Sea to Shining Sea: American Expansion 1820–1848."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19 From Sea to Shining Sea: American Expansion 1820–1848

2 The Mexico’s Borderlands American boundaries Jefferson’s generation assumes Louisiana Purchase completes U.S. Next generation looks towards Mexico territory Expanding settlement U.S. expands to the west Mexico expands to the north 1609 Santa Fe Mexico builds bases, missions Mexico settles California Juniper Serra 1769

3 Mexico’s Borderlands Mexico’s Borderlands (cont.’d) Santa Fe Trade William Becknell blazes trail from Independence to Santa Fe Trade on trail establishes link to the U.S. Great American Desert Americans think southwest is worthless land Few trees grow on plains Cattle could graze on plains Texans Mexico agrees for Moses Austin to bring Americans to Texas Americans promise to adopt Mexican ways, laws Soon outnumber Mexicans

4 Mexico’s Borderlands Mexico’s Borderlands (cont.’d) Texans’ conflict with Mexico Mexico abolishes slavery in 1820 Texans shun Mexican culture Santa Anna limits Texas autonomy Texas declares independence Texas Revolution Texans take a stand at Alamo Texans massacred at Goliad Texas victory at San Jacinto Rio Grande, not Nueces, boundary

5 Map of Americans in Mexican Borderlands, 1819–1848

6 Mexico’s Borderlands Mexico’s Borderlands (cont.’d) Lone Star Republic Government similar to U.S. Texas asks to joins U.S. U.S. refuses because of slavery Texas allies itself to Britain

7 Map of Americans in West 1819–1848

8 The Oregon Country Oregon Spain gives up claim to Oregon Russia gives up claim to Oregon U.S.–Britain jointly claim Oregon Mountain men Come to trap Beaver Adopt Indian lifestyles Trade with big companies Become guides for settlers Geography Teachers Jedediah Smith found South Pass over Rockies Jim Beckwourth found lowest pass Jim Bridger explored all over All taught that could cross the mountains

9 The Oregon Country The Oregon Country (cont.’d) Oregon Trail Missionaries come first Trail begins in Independence Theft biggest threat from Indians Thousands migrate westward Manifest Destiny Americans settle Oregon Americans in Oregon want to join U.S. Americans want “manifest destiny” Expansion from sea to sea

10 The Oregon Country The Oregon Country (cont.’d) Texas debate in 1844 Growing U.S. support to annex Texas Adding Texas could mean war with Mexico Clay–Van Buren compromise over campaign issue Democrats split over Texas issue in convention Election of 1844 Whig Henry Clay v. Democrat James K. Polk Polk pro expansion, Clay waffles Polk wins Tyler annexes Texas by joint resolution

11 The Oregon Country The Oregon Country (cont.’d) President James K. Polk Splits Oregon with British in treaty First threatened with 54”40’ or fight Tries to buy California, New Mexico Mexico refuses Polk decides top take them by force War with Mexico Polk sends troops into disputed territory Fighting breaks out Congress declares war, 1845

12 Map of The Mexican War, 1846–1847

13 The Oregon Country The Oregon Country (cont.’d) The Campaigns Stephen Kearney occupies California Zachary Taylor wins battles in northern Mexico Winfield Scott invades Mexico at Vera Cruz Scott occupies Mexico City Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo U.S. victorious in 1848 Establishes Rio Grande as boundary Cedes Southwest to U.S. U.S. pays Mexico $15 million

14 The Oregon Country The Oregon Country (cont.’d) War at Home War very popular in U.S. War does have its critics Henry David Thoreau: war to add slave territory Ulysses Grant: war of aggression Further expansion? Some Americans want more of Mexico Some Americans want Cuba Some Americans want Canada, Hawaii, West Indies

15 Discussion Questions How did Texas gain its independence? How did its joining the Union lead to war with Mexico? Explain what is meant by Manifest Destiny. How did this idea affect U.S. policy and politics? Does it still exist today? What drew settlers to the Oregon territory? How were these settlers able to make the long journey westward? Examine the Mexican War. How was the United States able to defeat Mexico so handily? How would the new territories gained after the war affect U.S. politics?

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