2 Immigration to TexasAmericans begin to expand and settle in Texas (Spanish Territory)Stephen Austin leads settlersSpanish accept settlers on three conditions1. Convert to Catholicism2. Become Mexican citizens3. Outlaw Slavery
3 Expansion & Conflict in Texas Why did Mexico want Americans to settle in Texas?To help defend and develop the province economicallyWhy did Americans want to settle in Texas?Abundant, cheap, fertile land with a small population
4 1835 30,000 Americans settle in Texas (outnumber Mexicans 6 to 1) DO NOT observe Mexican lawsLeads to Rebellion
6 Texas Revolution American colonists rebel Declare the “Republic of Texas”Mexico declares war
7 What brought American settlers into conflict with the Mexican government? They did not convert to Roman Catholicism (remained Protestants) & they ignored Mexico’s ban on slaveryWhat happened at the Alamo?Texas rebelled against Mexican ruleSanta Anna attacks the Alamo to put down the rebellion12 days of fighting, Mexico wins, then kills every prisoner; “Remember the Alamo!”
9 Why was the U.S. at first reluctant to annex Texas? Northern Democrats did not want to add another big, powerful slave state
10 James K. Polk’s Platform Pro Annexation of Texas and Oregon“54/40 or Fight”Campaign SloganExpansionist Policies4 nations claimed Oregon (Russia, USA, Spain, Britain)Supported Manifest Destiny
11 What promises did Polk make to help him win the election (of 1844)? To make Northern Democrats happy, he promises to get all of Oregon from Great Britain or go to war; *“54-40 or Fight!”*54 LineWhy did Polk need to satisfy the interests of Northerners specifically?
12 What did Polk do that left many Northern Democrats feeling betrayed? To avoid war with Great Britain, Polk compromised on Oregon in order to fight Mexico (British kept what became British Columbia)
13 Annexation of Texas (1845)10 days after inauguration Polk annexes Texas“We have always owned it”
14 The Mexican American War WHY?Land HungerAnnexationMexico InsultedManifest Destiny
15 The Border DisputePolk moves the Texas border south to the Rio Grande (150 miles south of the original border)Offers Mexico $30 million for New Mexico and California (Mexico insulted)Mexico prepares for war
16 Outbreak Polk enforces the southern border with American troops 1846 – Mexican troops cross the Rio Grande17 Americans DieCongress Declares War
17 Heroes of the WarMany junior lieutenants of the War eventually become leaders in the next war.Leaders include: Zachary Taylor, Winfield ScottUpcoming leaders include: Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, Stonewall Jackson, George Meade, James Longstreet, etc.
18 What formally ended the Mexican-American War? Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo(Mexican Cession)US adds 1.2 million square milesMexico was humiliated by the treaty, bitter toward US for many years
19 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) Mexican Cession – Mexico cedes Texas (with Rio Grande Border), California and New MexicoUSA pays $15 million for territories½ of what Polk originally offeredUS gains land covering Texas New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada and parts of Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming
20 How is this further contributing to US added more territory with the Gadsden Purchase (1853)Bought from Mexico, consisted of the southern parts of Arizona & New MexicoNeeded to run transcontinental RRHow is this further contributing toManifest Destiny?
21 What issue continued to divide the nation? SLAVERY, and its expansionWhig Congressman David Wilmot proposes the Wilmot Proviso:Proposed law would ban slavery in all lands won from MexicoLaw DID NOT passLands won from Mexico increased North/South tensionsProposed in Congress for 15 more yearsWhy do you think the Wilmot Proviso didn’t pass?
22 Election of 1848 Gen. Zachary Taylor (Whig, LA) wins narrow election *Last president to own slaves during his term
23 “Old Rough and Ready”*Dies after 16 months in office*Food Poisoning