Presentation on theme: "Texas & the Mexican-American War. Immigration to Texas Americans begin to expand and settle in Texas (Spanish Territory) –Stephen Austin leads settlers."— Presentation transcript:
Immigration to Texas Americans begin to expand and settle in Texas (Spanish Territory) –Stephen Austin leads settlers Spanish accept settlers on three conditions 1. Convert to Catholicism 2. Become Mexican citizens 3. Outlaw Slavery
Why did Mexico want Americans to settle in Texas? To help defend and develop the province economically Why did Americans want to settle in Texas? Abundant, cheap, fertile land with a small population Expansion & Conflict in Texas
1835 30,000 Americans settle in Texas (outnumber Mexicans 6 to 1) DO NOT observe Mexican laws Leads to Rebellion
Texas Revolution American colonists rebel –Declare the “Republic of Texas” Mexico declares war
What brought American settlers into conflict with the Mexican government? They did not convert to Roman Catholicism (remained Protestants) & they ignored Mexico’s ban on slavery What happened at the Alamo? Texas rebelled against Mexican rule Santa Anna attacks the Alamo to put down the rebellion 12 days of fighting, Mexico wins, then kills every prisoner; “Remember the Alamo!”
Why was the U.S. at first reluctant to annex Texas? Northern Democrats did not want to add another big, powerful slave state
James K. Polk’s Platform Pro Annexation of Texas and Oregon –“54/40 or Fight” Campaign Slogan Expansionist Policies 4 nations claimed Oregon (Russia, USA, Spain, Britain) Supported Manifest Destiny
What promises did Polk make to help him win the election (of 1844)? *“54-40 or Fight!”*To make Northern Democrats happy, he promises to get all of Oregon from Great Britain or go to war; *“54-40 or Fight!”* 54 Line Why did Polk need to satisfy the interests of Northerners specifically?
What did Polk do that left many Northern Democrats feeling betrayed? To avoid war with Great Britain, Polk compromised on Oregon in order to fight Mexico (British kept what became British Columbia)
Annexation of Texas (1845) 10 days after inauguration Polk annexes Texas –“We have always owned it”
The Mexican American War 1846-1848 –WHY? Land Hunger Annexation Mexico Insulted Manifest Destiny
The Border Dispute Polk moves the Texas border south to the Rio Grande (150 miles south of the original border) Offers Mexico $30 million for New Mexico and California (Mexico insulted) Mexico prepares for war
Outbreak Polk enforces the southern border with American troops 1846 – Mexican troops cross the Rio Grande 17 Americans Die Congress Declares War
Heroes of the War Many junior lieutenants of the War eventually become leaders in the next war. Leaders include: Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott Upcoming leaders include: Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, Stonewall Jackson, George Meade, James Longstreet, etc.
What formally ended the Mexican-American War? Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Mexican Cession) US adds 1.2 million square miles Mexico was humiliated by the treaty, bitter toward US for many years
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) Mexican Cession – Mexico cedes Texas (with Rio Grande Border), California and New Mexico USA pays $15 million for territories –½ of what Polk originally offered US gains land covering Texas New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada and parts of Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming
US added more territory with the Gadsden Purchase (1853) Bought from Mexico, consisted of the southern parts of Arizona & New Mexico Needed to run transcontinental RR How is this further contributing to Manifest Destiny?
What issue continued to divide the nation? –SLAVERY, and its expansion Whig Congressman David Wilmot proposes the Wilmot Proviso: Proposed law would ban slavery in all lands won from Mexico Law DID NOT pass Lands won from Mexico increased North/South tensions Proposed in Congress for 15 more years Why do you think the Wilmot Proviso didn’t pass?
Election of 1848 Gen. Zachary Taylor (Whig, LA) wins narrow election *Last president to own slaves during his term
“Old Rough and Ready” *Dies after 16 months in office *Food Poisoning