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AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM America: Past and Present Chapter 12.

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Presentation on theme: "AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM America: Past and Present Chapter 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM America: Past and Present Chapter 12

2 Movement to the Far West n American settlement reaches Pacific in 1830s and 1840s n Settlement encroaches on lands claimed by Mexico and England

3 Borderlands of the 1830s n 1842--Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles the northeast U.S.-Canadian boundary n Americans begin settling in – Oregon territory (joint U.S., English claim) – New Mexico territory (owned by Mexico) – California (owned by Mexico)

4 The Texas Revolution n 1820s--Americans move into Texas n "Anglos" never fully accept Mexican rule n 1829--Mexico tries abolishing slavery n 1835--armed rebellion breaks out

5 The Republic of Texas n March, 1836--Texans declare independence n April, 1836--Santa Anna defeated at San Jacinto n May, 1836--Santa Anna’s treaty recognizes Texas' claim to territory (Mexico repudiates) n Texas offers free land grants to U.S. settlers n Annexation to U.S. refused by Jackson

6 Trails of Trade and Settlement n Santa Fe Trail closed to U.S. travelers as a result of Mexico’s war with Texas n Oregon Trail conduit for heavy stream of settlers to the Oregon country n Oregon settlers demand an end to joint U.S., English occupation

7 The Mormon Trek: Westward Flight n Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith, 1830 n Mormon church seeks revival of pure aboriginal American Christianity n Mormons persecuted for unorthodoxy n Flee New York for Nauvoo, Illinois n Murder of Joseph Smith prompts resettlement to Great Salt Lake in Utah

8 The Mormons Trek: Mormons in Utah n 1847--State of Deseret established n Desert transformed into farmland n Mormons at first resist U.S. governance n 1857--Brigham Young accepts post as territorial governor of Utah

9 Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War n Widespread call for annexation of newly-settled lands n “Manifest Destiny” a slogan of those believing the U.S. divinely ordained to encompass Mexico and Canada

10 Tyler and Texas n 1841--John Tyler assumes presidency after William Henry Harrison’s death n Tyler breaks with Whigs n 1844--Tyler negotiates annexation with Texas for re-election campaign issue n Senate refuses to ratify n Tyler loses Whig nomination to Henry Clay

11 The Triumph of Polk and Annexation n Democrats nominate James K. Polk n Polk runs on expansionist platform – annexation of Texas for Southern vote – U.S. jurisdiction of Oregon for Northern vote n Polk, Congress interpret his election as mandate for expansion n Texas annexed before Polk inaugurated

12 The Doctrine of Manifest Destiny n "Manifest destiny" first used in 1845 – God wants the U.S., His chosen nation, to become stronger – Americans make new territories free and democratic – Growing American population needs land n Limits to American expansion undefined

13 Polk and the Oregon Question n 1846--Polk notifies Great Britain that the U.S. no longer accepts joint occupation n England prepares for war, proposes division of the area n Senate approves division of Oregon along 49 o north latitude, Treaty of 1846 n U.S. gains ownership of Puget Sound n North condemned Polk for division

14 War with Mexico n May 13, 1846--War on Mexico declared n General Zachary Taylor wins campaign in northern Mexico n September, 1847--General Winfield Scott occupies Mexico City

15 Settlement of the Mexican- American War n February, 1848--Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo n Rio Grande becomes southern border n New Mexico, California ceded to U.S. n Mexican War politically contentious – Whigs oppose – Northerners see as Slave Power expansion

16 Internal Expansionism n “Young Americans” link territorial growth to other material achievements – Technological innovation—e.g. telegraph – Transportation improvements – Growth of trade – Mass immigration n Discovery of California gold inspires transcontinental projects n Territorial expansion wanes after 1848, economic, population growth continues

17 Triumph of the Railroad n 1840s--railroad begins displacing canals n Rail construction stimulates iron industry n Railroads stimulate new forms of finance – bonds – preferred stock – government subsidies

18 The Industrial Revolution Takes Off n Mass production, the division of labor makes production more efficient n Factory system emerges – Gather laborers in one place for supervision – Cash wages – “Continuous process" of manufacturing n Agriculture becomes mechanized n Northern economy based on interaction of industry, transportation, agriculture

19 Mass Immigration Begins n 1840-1860--4 million Irish, Germans immigrate to U.S. n Most come for higher wages n Immigrants fill low-paying jobs in port cities n Low immigrant wages contribute to slums n Urban reform movement results

20 Immigration to the United States, 1820-1860

21 The New Working Class n 1840s--factory labor begins shifting from women, children to men n Immigrants dominate new working class n Employers less involved with laborers n Post-1837 employers demand more work for less pay n Unions organized to defend worker rights

22 The New Working Class n Wage laborers resent discipline, continuous nature of factory work n Workers cling to traditional work habits n Working class poses problem for ideals – Working for wages assumed the first step toward becoming one’s own master – New class of permanent wage-earners conflicts with old ideal

23 Expansion and Conflict n Politicians hoped to base patriotic consensus on continued expansion n Economic expansion creates conflicts between classes n Territorial expansion creates conflicts between sections n Both sets of conflicts uncontrollable

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