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Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion 1840-1861.

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Presentation on theme: "Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion 1840-1861."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manifest Destiny and Westward Expansion

2 Manifest Destiny Term was coined by New York journalist John L. O’Sullivan in 1845 Term was coined by New York journalist John L. O’Sullivan in 1845 According to O’Sullivan, the U.S. had a divinely appointed mission to occupy all of North America According to O’Sullivan, the U.S. had a divinely appointed mission to occupy all of North America Justified his beliefs on the idea of freedom Justified his beliefs on the idea of freedom Goal of westward expansion was to expand freedom Goal of westward expansion was to expand freedom

3 Manifest Destiny in Action Texas Texas Originally part of Mexico after Mexico gains independence from Spain in 1821Originally part of Mexico after Mexico gains independence from Spain in 1821 Texas colonized by Americans under the Austin familyTexas colonized by Americans under the Austin family Slavery was also illegal under the Mexican governmentSlavery was also illegal under the Mexican government Local authorities, however, allow slaves. Why?Local authorities, however, allow slaves. Why?

4 “Remember the Alamo” In 1836, a revolt starts between Mexican troops under General Santa Anna and American settlers In 1836, a revolt starts between Mexican troops under General Santa Anna and American settlers March 13, 1836-Santa Anna storms the Alamo, a mission compound in San Antonio killing 187 Americans and Tejanos (non Indians of Spanish origin) March 13, 1836-Santa Anna storms the Alamo, a mission compound in San Antonio killing 187 Americans and Tejanos (non Indians of Spanish origin) In April, American forces under Sam Houston win the Battle of San Jacinto In April, American forces under Sam Houston win the Battle of San Jacinto Mexico forced to recognize Texan independence Mexico forced to recognize Texan independence

5 Texas wants to join the US Texas wants to join the US Presidents Jackson and Van Buren concerned about the issue of slavery Presidents Jackson and Van Buren concerned about the issue of slavery Many slave owning settlers continue to migrate to Texas Many slave owning settlers continue to migrate to Texas Cotton Cotton

6 “Oregon Fever” Both Britain and the United States claim the Oregon Territory Both Britain and the United States claim the Oregon Territory Britain-Fur Trade Britain-Fur Trade United States United States Discovery of Columbia River in 1792Discovery of Columbia River in 1792 Expeditions of Lewis and ClarkExpeditions of Lewis and Clark Trading post and fort established by John Jacob Astor in 1811Trading post and fort established by John Jacob Astor in 1811 Fertile farm land Fertile farm land Oregon Trail- 2,000 milesOregon Trail- 2,000 miles Settle south of Columbia RiverSettle south of Columbia River

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8 “54° 40’ or Fight” The Election of 1844 “54° 40’ or Fight” The Election of 1844 President John Tyler vs. eventually James K. Polk President John Tyler vs. eventually James K. Polk Tyler becomes President in 1840 after William Henry Harrison dies shortly after his inauguration Tyler becomes President in 1840 after William Henry Harrison dies shortly after his inauguration Annexation of Texas becomes Tyler’s key re- election issue Annexation of Texas becomes Tyler’s key re- election issue Democratic Convention- 2 main candidates Democratic Convention- 2 main candidates Former President Martin Van Buren and John C. Calhoun Former President Martin Van Buren and John C. Calhoun Whig candidate is Henry Clay Whig candidate is Henry Clay

9 Van Buren against annexation of Texas Van Buren against annexation of Texas Calhoun for annexation of Texas Calhoun for annexation of Texas Caused convention to deadlock Caused convention to deadlock Delegates finally nominate Polk Delegates finally nominate Polk slave ownerslave owner cotton plantation owner in Tennesseecotton plantation owner in Tennessee “Jacksonian Democrat”“Jacksonian Democrat” Platform called for annexation of Texas and “reoccupation” of Oregon to its northern border Platform called for annexation of Texas and “reoccupation” of Oregon to its northern border Clay changes his mind and supports annexation of Texas Clay changes his mind and supports annexation of Texas Whigs lose New York in Electoral College vote Whigs lose New York in Electoral College vote Polk elected President Polk elected President

10 Outgoing President Tyler viewed Polk’s election as a mandate to add Texas to the Union Outgoing President Tyler viewed Polk’s election as a mandate to add Texas to the Union Persuaded Congress to pass a joint resolution on annexation rather than a Senate treaty Persuaded Congress to pass a joint resolution on annexation rather than a Senate treaty In March 1845, just before the inauguration, U.S. annexes Texas In March 1845, just before the inauguration, U.S. annexes Texas

11 Oregon Resolution President Polk compromises with Britain President Polk compromises with Britain Moves away from “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” campaign slogan Moves away from “Fifty-four Forty or Fight” campaign slogan Oregon territory divided at 49 th parallel Oregon territory divided at 49 th parallel

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13 The Mexican War ( ) Was the Mexican War an example of Manifest Destiny? Was the Mexican War an example of Manifest Destiny? Was the Mexican War our country’s first imperialistic war? Was the Mexican War our country’s first imperialistic war? US wants to acquire California US wants to acquire California Mexican government refuses Mexican government refuses President Polk is ready to use the military President Polk is ready to use the military Fighting started between troops from both sides on a disputed border between Mexico and Texas Fighting started between troops from both sides on a disputed border between Mexico and Texas Polk claimed Mexico attacked Americans on American soil Polk claimed Mexico attacked Americans on American soil Constant changes in Mexican government Constant changes in Mexican government Many criticize President Polk for provoking a war Many criticize President Polk for provoking a war Supporters-spread of liberty Supporters-spread of liberty Opponents-America zealous for land and expansion of slavery Opponents-America zealous for land and expansion of slavery Lincoln- “Spot” Speech, Making “war at pleasure” Lincoln- “Spot” Speech, Making “war at pleasure”

14 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ends the war Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ends the war Main points: Confirmed annexation of Texas, ceded California and present day New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah to the U.S. Main points: Confirmed annexation of Texas, ceded California and present day New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah to the U.S. In return, US paid Mexico $15 million dollars In return, US paid Mexico $15 million dollars Rise of transcendentalism Rise of transcendentalism Ralph Waldo EmersonRalph Waldo Emerson Henry David ThoreauHenry David Thoreau

15 Was the Mexican War an example of Manifest Destiny? Was the Mexican War an example of Manifest Destiny? Was the Mexican War our country’s first imperialistic war? Was the Mexican War our country’s first imperialistic war?


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