Presentation on theme: "Language Estimated in 6,909 languages in world"— Presentation transcript:
1Language Estimated in 6,909 languages in world -only 11 languages spoken by more than 100 million people-153 languages spoken by at least 3 million-remaining languages spoken by fewer than 3 million people
2LanguageLanguage:A system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaningMany languages have a literary traditionA system of written communicationThose that lack literary tradition leave no records to document distribution of languageMany countries designate at least one official languageOne used by government for laws, signs, money and stamps
3Language Definitions Proto-tongue Language divergence Language shift Language is a culture trait learned from one generation to anotherSpeculated that nearly 2.5 million years ago language developed in order to organize human activityAll original speakers communicated in the proto-tongue or original languageOnce speakers migrated, language divergence occurredLanguage divergenceWhen speakers of the same language scatter and develop variations of that original form of languageLanguage shiftWhen speakers come into contact with other languages, a blending of the two or more languages can occur.Language replacementOccurs when invaders replace the language of those places they conquerCan lead to language extinctionWhen a language is no longer usedReverse ReconstructionProcess begins with the most recent places of the languages existence and moves backward through time comparing words with geographic places and groups of people using the same or similar words
4Language Definitions Dialect Language family Language branch Regional variations within a standard languageDifferences in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabularyLanguage familyCollection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistorical originMost widely spoken is Indo- EuropeanExample: Indo-EuropeanLanguage branchCollection of languages that possesses a definite common origin but has split into individual languagesExample: RomanceLanguage groupCollection of several individual languages that is part of a language branch, shares a common origin in the recent past, and has relatively similar grammar and vocabularyExample: Spanish, French
5Where are English-language speakers distributed Key Issue #1Where are English-language speakers distributed
6Origin of English English English Colonies 1st language for 328 million peopleSpoken fluently by half-billion peopleOfficial language in 57 countriesPredominate language in 2 countriesAustraliaUnited States2 billion people (1/3rd) live in a country where English is the official languageEnglish ColoniesContemporary distribution of English speakers around the world exists because the people of England migrated with their languages when they established colonies in the past four centuriesDiffusionFrom England to North AmericaJamestown, VA 1607Plymouth, Mass 1620English assured as dominant language after French-Indian warEngland conquered other colonies in late 17th, 18th and 19th centuriesIrelandSoutheast AsiaAfrica
7Origin of English in England British Isles inhabited for thousands of years but nothing is known of early languages1st known- the Celts arrivedArrived 2000 B.C.E.Around 450 C.E. tribes invaded from mainland Europe invadedCelts pushed into Northern and Western parts of England, Scotland, and WalesGerman InvasionInvading TribesAngles, Jutes, SaxonsShared a similar languageAnglo-SaxonsModern English derived fromAt some time all Germans spoke same languagePredates recorded historyOther invasions contributed to languageVikings 9th century
8Origin of English in England Norman InvasionEnglish is different from German today thanks to the NormansNormans invaded in 1066 C.E.Spoke FrenchLanguage in England for 300 yrsMainly only Royals spokeEngland lost control of Normandy in 1204 C.E.Conflict with FrenchEnglish dominate againMix of English and French created new hybrid
9Dialects of English Dialect: Migration A regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciationReflects distinctive features of the environments in which groups liveDistribution of dialects studied through study of particular wordsIsogloss:A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominateCollected data directly from peopleMigrationWhen speakers of a language migrate to other locations, various dialects of that language might developExample:English speakers migration to North AmericaEnglish varies by regions within individual countriesIn a language with multiple dialects, one dialect may be recognized as the standard languageMost acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communicationEx. British Received Pronunciation
10Dialects in England English originated with three invading groups Angles, Jute, SaxonsAll basis of distant regional regional dialects of Old EnglishSoutheast- KentishSouthwest- West SaxonNorth- NorthumbrianCenter- MercianAfter French InvasionFive major dialects emergedNorthern, East Midland, West Midland, Southwestern and Southeastern/ KentishStandard languageDialect used by upper-class residents emerged as standard for writing and speechDiffusion occurred thanks to Printing press in 1476Grammar books and dictionaries printed in “London” dialectStrong regional differences remainThree main dialectNorthernMidlandSouthern
11Differences Between British and American English English language brought to North America with Colonists in 17th centuryEarly Colonists spoke language spoken in EnglandLater immigrants found English already implanted hereMade significant contributions to American EnglishWhy is American English so different?IsolationU.S. and England evolved independently in 18th and 19th centuriesVocabularySettlers encountered new experiencesPhysical features, animals, inventionsEx. Elevator = lift in EnglandSpellingDiverged due to demand for independent identityNoah WebsterDetermined to develop a uniquely American dialect of EnglishWanted to establish a national languageEx. Honour= honorPronunciationBegan with arrival of colonistsChanged more in England than U.S.Americans didn’t speak proper English
13Dialects in the United States Different dialects originated because of differences in dialects among original settlersSettlement in the EastNew EnglandEstablished and inhabited by colonist from EnglandMainly from SE EnglandSoutheastern½ came from SE EnglandDiverse social-classesMiddle AtlanticMost diversePenn- Quakers (North England)Scots/ IrishGermansSwedesEnglish dialects in U.S. Southeast and New England easily recognizable today
15Dialects in the United States Pronunciation differencesNew EnglandDrop the rSouthMake words into two syllablesMiddle AtlanticDiffused with western settlersDiffused much like housing typesMobility of Americans has been a major reason for the relatively uniform language that exists throughout much of the WestCurrent dialect differences in the EastMajor dialect differences continue to exist within the U.S.Primarily on the East CoastEx. Soda vs. Pop vs. Coke
16Why is English Related to Other Languages Key Issue #2Why is English Related to Other Languages
17Language HearthsTraditional approaches in cultural geography have identified the source areas of the world’s languages and the paths of diffusion of those languages from their places of origins.
18Indo- European Branches Language familyCollection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded historyIndo-European most common familyLanguage branchCollection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years agoIndo-European family is divided into eight branchesGermanicClustered in NW Europe and North AmericaIndo-IranianClustered in South AsiaBaltic languagesClustered in Eastern EuropeRomanceClustered in SW Europe and Latin AmericaOther branchesAlbanianArmenianGreekCeltic
19Germanic Branch Language group West Germanic Further divided A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabularyWest GermanicLanguage group in Germanic branchEnglish is a part of this groupEnglish and German are structurally similar and have many words in commonFurther dividedHigh Germanic and Low Germanic
20West Germanic Branch High Germanic Low Germanic North Germanic Found in high elevations in GermanySpoken in southern mountainsBasis for modern standard German languageLow GermanicIncludes:EnglishDutchFlemishNorth GermanicIncludes languages spoken in ScandinaviaSwedishNorwegianDanishIcelandicAll derived from Old Norse
21Indo-Iranian Branch Part of the Indo-European family Includes more than 100 million speakersBranches include more than 100 individual languagesBranch is divided into:Eastern group (Indic)Iranian
22Indo-Iranian Branch Indic (Eastern Branch) Most widely used in IndiaPakistanBangladeshOne of main elements of cultural diversity among the 1 billion plus residents in India is languageOfficial language of India is HindiProposed as official languageRejected, remains EnglishOnly official way to write is using script called DevanagariIndia recognizes 22 “Scheduled languages”15 are Indo-EuropeanIranian (Western Branch)IncludesPersian (Farsi)Spoken in IranPashtoSpoken in Afghanistan and western PakistanKurdishSpoken in Western Iran, Northern Iraq, and Eastern TurkeyWritten in Arabic alphabetSpoken inIranSouthwestern Asia
23Baltic-Slavic Branch Slavic once a single language Differences developed in 7th century A.D. when several groups migrated from Asia into Eastern EuropeDivided into:EastWestSouthBaltic
24Balto-Slavic East Slavic Most widely used of Slavic languages Russian One of 6 languages of U.N.Importance increased after rise of Soviet Union to powerS.U. forced people to speakAfter break-up other languages re-emergedUkrainian and Belarusian
25Balto-Slavic West Slavic South Slavic Includes Polish (most widely spoken)CzechSlovakFormer Czechoslovakia tried to balance Czech and Slovak languagesCountry contained 2X CzechsSwitched languages at sporting eventsEffective until split in 1993South SlavicSpoken inBosnia and HerzegovinaCroatiaMontenegroSerbiaAll once spoke Serbo-CroatianAll once part of YugoslaviaSplit= tensionsBosnians and Croats take offenseBosnian Muslims introduced Arabic words into languageCroats have replaced “Serbian words”May be very different in futureAll Slavic languages similar and can be understood….. For now.
26Romance BRanch Evolved from Latin spoken by Romans 2,000 years ago Four most widely used:SpanishPortugueseFrenchItalianLanguages spoken mainly within nation bordersMountains serves as barriersStrong intervening obstaclesAlso included RomanianSpoken in Romania and MoldovaSeparated from Western Europe by Slavic speakersDistribution of Romance Languages highlights difficulty in trying to establish #s of distinct languages in the worldSeveral more Romance languagesEx. Catalan, Sardinian, RomanshSome have individual literary traditions
27Romance Branch Origin Diffusion All derived from Latin Spread of Roman Empire = spread of LatinConquered languages often suppressed or extinguishedEmpire so large = Latin variedProvinces spoke “Vulgar Latin”Vulgar means “the masses”Introduced by soldiersDiffusionFollowing collapse of Roman Empire communication declinedSome reverted to old languageLed to new, distinct languages
28Romance Branch Dialects Languages evolved over time Numerous dialects are spoken within each provinceCreation of standard national languages are relatively recentFranceStandard form = FrancienFrom Ile-de-France regionBecame official in 16th cent.Dialect differenceNorth- Langue d’oilSouth- Langue d’ocOften called Occitan
29Romance Branch Spain Differences Contained many dialects during Middle AgesCastilian spread throughout the country as it unifiedSpain reached approximate present day boundaries in 15th centuryCastilian became official languageNow called SpanishRegional dialects survived only in secluded rural areasExpansionBoth Spain and Portuguese have achieved worldwide importance because of colonization90% of speakers live outside two nationsSpanish is official language of 18 Latin American nationsPortuguese is spoken in BrazilDifferencesTwo languages diffused thanks to exploration in 15th centuryTreaty of Tordesillas 1493Two languages differ from West Hemisphere and East HemisphereForces in both hemispheres “standardize” the languages
30Distinguishing between Dialect and Languages Difficulties arise in determining whether two languages are distinct or whether they are merely two dialects of the same languageRomance languages spoken in some former colonies can be classified as separate languages because they differ substantially from the original introduced by European colonizers.French CreolePapiamento (Creolized Spanish)Portuguese CreoleA Creole or creolized language is defined as a language that results from the mixing of the colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
31Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo- Iranian languages are all part of the same Indo-European language familyMust be descended from a single common ancestral languageCalled Proto-Indo-EuropeanCan’t be provenExisted before writingB.C.E.Internal EvidencePhysical attributes of words themselves in various Indo-European languagesBeech, oak, bear, deer, beeProbably lived in a cold climateModern Indo-European languages share word for “snow”No contact with oceansMost agree that Proto-Indo-European existedDisagree on when and where it originated and how it diffusedTwo theoriesNomadic Warrior Thesis (Conquest)1st speakers were Kurgan peopleHomeland near steppes near present day Russia and KazakhstanEarliest evidence 4300 B.C.E.Nomadic herdersFirst to domesticateMigrated for grasslandsLater developed weapons, conquered South AsiaSedentary Farmer Thesis (Agrarian)1st speakers lived 2000 yrs before KurganHomeland in East AnatoliaDiffused towards MediterraneanWith agricultural practices not military conquest
32Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European Map of Indo-European MigrationsB.C.E.