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Language Estimated in 6,909 languages in world -only 11 languages spoken by more than 100 million people -153 languages spoken by at least 3 million -remaining.

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Presentation on theme: "Language Estimated in 6,909 languages in world -only 11 languages spoken by more than 100 million people -153 languages spoken by at least 3 million -remaining."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language Estimated in 6,909 languages in world -only 11 languages spoken by more than 100 million people -153 languages spoken by at least 3 million -remaining languages spoken by fewer than 3 million people

2 Language Language:Language: A system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaningA system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning Many languages have a literary traditionMany languages have a literary tradition A system of written communicationA system of written communication Those that lack literary tradition leave no records to document distribution of languageThose that lack literary tradition leave no records to document distribution of language Many countries designate at least one official languageMany countries designate at least one official language One used by government for laws, signs, money and stampsOne used by government for laws, signs, money and stamps

3 Language Definitions Proto-tongueProto-tongueProto-tongue Language is a culture trait learned from one generation to anotherLanguage is a culture trait learned from one generation to another Speculated that nearly 2.5 million years ago language developed in order to organize human activitySpeculated that nearly 2.5 million years ago language developed in order to organize human activity All original speakers communicated in the proto-tongue or original languageAll original speakers communicated in the proto-tongue or original language Once speakers migrated, language divergence occurredOnce speakers migrated, language divergence occurred Language divergenceLanguage divergence When speakers of the same language scatter and develop variations of that original form of languageWhen speakers of the same language scatter and develop variations of that original form of language Language shiftLanguage shift When speakers come into contact with other languages, a blending of the two or more languages can occur. Language replacementLanguage replacement Occurs when invaders replace the language of those places they conquer Can lead to language extinction When a language is no longer used Reverse ReconstructionReverse Reconstruction Process begins with the most recent places of the languages existence and moves backward through time comparing words with geographic places and groups of people using the same or similar words

4 Language Definitions DialectDialect Regional variations within a standard languageRegional variations within a standard language Differences in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabularyDifferences in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary Language familyLanguage family Collection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistorical originCollection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistorical origin Most widely spoken is Indo- EuropeanMost widely spoken is Indo- European Example: Indo-EuropeanExample: Indo-European Language branchLanguage branch Collection of languages that possesses a definite common origin but has split into individual languages Example: Romance Language groupLanguage group Collection of several individual languages that is part of a language branch, shares a common origin in the recent past, and has relatively similar grammar and vocabulary Example: Spanish, French

5 Key Issue #1 Where are English-language speakers distributed

6 Origin of English EnglishEnglish 1 st language for 328 million people1 st language for 328 million people Spoken fluently by half-billion peopleSpoken fluently by half-billion people Official language in 57 countriesOfficial language in 57 countries Predominate language in 2 countriesPredominate language in 2 countries AustraliaAustralia United StatesUnited States 2 billion people (1/3 rd ) live in a country where English is the official language2 billion people (1/3 rd ) live in a country where English is the official language English ColoniesEnglish Colonies Contemporary distribution of English speakers around the world exists because the people of England migrated with their languages when they established colonies in the past four centuries Diffusion From England to North America Jamestown, VA 1607 Plymouth, Mass 1620 English assured as dominant language after French-Indian war England conquered other colonies in late 17 th, 18 th and 19 th centuries Ireland Southeast Asia Africa

7 Origin of English in England British Isles inhabited for thousands of years but nothing is known of early languagesBritish Isles inhabited for thousands of years but nothing is known of early languages 1st known- the Celts arrived1st known- the Celts arrived Arrived 2000 B.C.E.Arrived 2000 B.C.E. Around 450 C.E. tribes invaded from mainland Europe invadedAround 450 C.E. tribes invaded from mainland Europe invaded Celts pushed into Northern and Western parts of England, Scotland, and WalesCelts pushed into Northern and Western parts of England, Scotland, and Wales German InvasionGerman Invasion Invading Tribes Angles, Jutes, Saxons Shared a similar language Anglo-Saxons Modern English derived from At some time all Germans spoke same language Predates recorded history Other invasions contributed to languageOther invasions contributed to language Vikings 9th century

8 Origin of English in England Norman InvasionNorman Invasion English is different from German today thanks to the NormansEnglish is different from German today thanks to the Normans Normans invaded in 1066 C.E.Normans invaded in 1066 C.E. Spoke FrenchSpoke French Language in England for 300 yrsLanguage in England for 300 yrs Mainly only Royals spokeMainly only Royals spoke England lost control of Normandy in 1204 C.E.England lost control of Normandy in 1204 C.E. Conflict with FrenchConflict with French English dominate againEnglish dominate again Mix of English and French created new hybridMix of English and French created new hybrid

9 Dialects of English Dialect:Dialect: A regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciationA regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation Reflects distinctive features of the environments in which groups liveReflects distinctive features of the environments in which groups live Distribution of dialects studied through study of particular wordsDistribution of dialects studied through study of particular words Isogloss:Isogloss: A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominateA boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate Collected data directly from people MigrationMigration When speakers of a language migrate to other locations, various dialects of that language might develop Example: English speakers migration to North America English varies by regions within individual countries In a language with multiple dialects, one dialect may be recognized as the standard languageIn a language with multiple dialects, one dialect may be recognized as the standard language Most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication Ex. British Received Pronunciation

10 Dialects in England English originated with three invading groupsEnglish originated with three invading groups Angles, Jute, SaxonsAngles, Jute, Saxons All basis of distant regional regional dialects of Old EnglishAll basis of distant regional regional dialects of Old English Southeast- KentishSoutheast- Kentish Southwest- West SaxonSouthwest- West Saxon North- NorthumbrianNorth- Northumbrian Center- MercianCenter- Mercian After French InvasionAfter French Invasion Five major dialects emergedFive major dialects emerged Northern, East Midland, West Midland, Southwestern and Southeastern/ KentishNorthern, East Midland, West Midland, Southwestern and Southeastern/ Kentish Standard languageStandard language Dialect used by upper-class residents emerged as standard for writing and speech Diffusion occurred thanks to Printing press in 1476 Grammar books and dictionaries printed in “London” dialect Strong regional differences remainStrong regional differences remain Three main dialect Northern Midland Southern

11 Differences Between British and American English English language brought to North America with Colonists in 17 th centuryEnglish language brought to North America with Colonists in 17 th century Early Colonists spoke language spoken in EnglandEarly Colonists spoke language spoken in England Later immigrants found English already implanted hereLater immigrants found English already implanted here Made significant contributions to American EnglishMade significant contributions to American English Why is American English so different?Why is American English so different? IsolationIsolation U.S. and England evolved independently in 18 th and 19 th centuriesU.S. and England evolved independently in 18 th and 19 th centuries VocabularyVocabulary Settlers encountered new experiences Physical features, animals, inventions Ex. Elevator = lift in England SpellingSpelling Diverged due to demand for independent identity Noah Webster Determined to develop a uniquely American dialect of English Wanted to establish a national language Ex. Honour= honor PronunciationPronunciation Began with arrival of colonists Changed more in England than U.S. Americans didn’t speak proper English

12 Differences

13 Dialects in the United States Different dialects originated because of differences in dialects among original settlersDifferent dialects originated because of differences in dialects among original settlers Settlement in the EastSettlement in the East New EnglandNew EnglandNew EnglandNew England Established and inhabited by colonist from EnglandEstablished and inhabited by colonist from England Mainly from SE EnglandMainly from SE England SoutheasternSoutheasternSoutheastern ½ came from SE England½ came from SE England Diverse social-classesDiverse social-classes Middle AtlanticMiddle Atlantic Most diverseMost diverse Penn- Quakers (North England)Penn- Quakers (North England) Scots/ IrishScots/ Irish GermansGermans SwedesSwedes English dialects in U.S. Southeast and New England easily recognizable todayEnglish dialects in U.S. Southeast and New England easily recognizable today

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15 Dialects in the United States Pronunciation differencesPronunciation differences New EnglandNew England Drop the rDrop the r SouthSouth Make words into two syllablesMake words into two syllables Middle AtlanticMiddle Atlantic Diffused with western settlersDiffused with western settlers Diffused much like housing typesDiffused much like housing types Mobility of Americans has been a major reason for the relatively uniform language that exists throughout much of the WestMobility of Americans has been a major reason for the relatively uniform language that exists throughout much of the West Current dialect differences in the EastCurrent dialect differences in the East Major dialect differences continue to exist within the U.S. Primarily on the East Coast Ex. Soda vs. Pop vs. CokeSoda vs. Pop vs. Coke

16 Key Issue #2 Why is English Related to Other Languages

17 Language Hearths Traditional approaches in cultural geography have identified the source areas of the world’s languages and the paths of diffusion of those languages from their places of origins.Traditional approaches in cultural geography have identified the source areas of the world’s languages and the paths of diffusion of those languages from their places of origins.

18 Indo- European Branches Language familyLanguage family Collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded historyCollection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded history Indo-European most common familyIndo-European most common family Language branchLanguage branch Collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years agoCollection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago Indo-European family is divided into eight branchesIndo-European family is divided into eight branches Germanic Clustered in NW Europe and North America Indo-Iranian Clustered in South Asia Baltic languages Clustered in Eastern Europe Romance Clustered in SW Europe and Latin America Other branches Albanian Armenian Greek Celtic

19 Germanic Branch Language groupLanguage group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabularyA collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary West GermanicWest Germanic Language group in Germanic branchLanguage group in Germanic branch English is a part of this groupEnglish is a part of this group English and German are structurally similar and have many words in commonEnglish and German are structurally similar and have many words in common Further dividedFurther divided West GermanicWest Germanic High Germanic and Low GermanicHigh Germanic and Low Germanic

20 West Germanic Branch High GermanicHigh Germanic Found in high elevations in GermanyFound in high elevations in Germany Spoken in southern mountainsSpoken in southern mountains Basis for modern standard German languageBasis for modern standard German language Low GermanicLow Germanic Includes:Includes: EnglishEnglish DutchDutch FlemishFlemish North GermanicNorth Germanic Includes languages spoken in Scandinavia Swedish Norwegian Danish Icelandic All derived from Old Norse

21 Indo-Iranian Branch Part of the Indo-European familyPart of the Indo-European family Includes more than 100 million speakersIncludes more than 100 million speakers Branches include more than 100 individual languagesBranches include more than 100 individual languages Branch is divided into:Branch is divided into: Eastern group (Indic)Eastern group (Indic) IranianIranian

22 Indo-Iranian Branch Indic (Eastern Branch)Indic (Eastern Branch) Most widely used inMost widely used in IndiaIndia PakistanPakistan BangladeshBangladesh One of main elements of cultural diversity among the 1 billion plus residents in India is languageOne of main elements of cultural diversity among the 1 billion plus residents in India is language Official language of India is HindiOfficial language of India is Hindi Proposed as official languageProposed as official language Rejected, remains EnglishRejected, remains English Only official way to write is using script called DevanagariOnly official way to write is using script called Devanagari India recognizes 22 “Scheduled languages”India recognizes 22 “Scheduled languages” 15 are Indo-European15 are Indo-European Iranian (Western Branch) Includes Persian (Farsi) Spoken in Iran Pashto Spoken in Afghanistan and western Pakistan Kurdish Spoken in Western Iran, Northern Iraq, and Eastern Turkey Written in Arabic alphabet Spoken in Iran Southwestern Asia

23 Baltic-Slavic Branch Slavic once a single languageSlavic once a single language Differences developed in 7 th century A.D. when several groups migrated from Asia into Eastern EuropeDifferences developed in 7 th century A.D. when several groups migrated from Asia into Eastern Europe Divided into:Divided into: EastEast WestWest SouthSouth BalticBaltic

24 Balto-Slavic East SlavicEast Slavic Most widely used of Slavic languagesMost widely used of Slavic languages RussianRussian One of 6 languages of U.N.One of 6 languages of U.N. Importance increased after rise of Soviet Union to powerImportance increased after rise of Soviet Union to power S.U. forced people to speakS.U. forced people to speak After break-up other languages re-emergedAfter break-up other languages re-emerged Ukrainian and BelarusianUkrainian and Belarusian

25 Balto-Slavic West SlavicWest Slavic IncludesIncludes Polish (most widely spoken)Polish (most widely spoken) CzechCzech SlovakSlovak Former Czechoslovakia tried to balance Czech and Slovak languagesFormer Czechoslovakia tried to balance Czech and Slovak languages Country contained 2X CzechsCountry contained 2X Czechs Switched languages at sporting eventsSwitched languages at sporting events Effective until split in 1993Effective until split in 1993 South SlavicSouth Slavic Spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Montenegro Serbia All once spoke Serbo-Croatian All once part of Yugoslavia Split= tensions Bosnians and Croats take offense Bosnian Muslims introduced Arabic words into language Croats have replaced “Serbian words” May be very different in future All Slavic languages similar and can be understood….. For now.

26 Romance BRanch Evolved from Latin spoken by Romans 2,000 years agoEvolved from Latin spoken by Romans 2,000 years ago Four most widely used:Four most widely used: SpanishSpanish PortuguesePortuguese FrenchFrench ItalianItalian Languages spoken mainly within nation bordersLanguages spoken mainly within nation borders Mountains serves as barriersMountains serves as barriers Strong intervening obstaclesStrong intervening obstacles Also included RomanianAlso included Romanian Spoken in Romania and Moldova Separated from Western Europe by Slavic speakers Distribution of Romance Languages highlights difficulty in trying to establish #s of distinct languages in the worldDistribution of Romance Languages highlights difficulty in trying to establish #s of distinct languages in the world Several more Romance languages Ex. Catalan, Sardinian, Romansh Some have individual literary traditions

27 Romance Branch OriginOrigin All derived from LatinAll derived from Latin Spread of Roman Empire = spread of LatinSpread of Roman Empire = spread of Latin Conquered languages often suppressed or extinguishedConquered languages often suppressed or extinguished Empire so large = Latin variedEmpire so large = Latin varied Provinces spoke “Vulgar Latin”Provinces spoke “Vulgar Latin” Vulgar means “the masses”Vulgar means “the masses” Introduced by soldiersIntroduced by soldiers DiffusionDiffusion Following collapse of Roman Empire communication declinedFollowing collapse of Roman Empire communication declined Some reverted to old languageSome reverted to old language Led to new, distinct languagesLed to new, distinct languages

28 Romance Branch DialectsDialects Languages evolved over timeLanguages evolved over time Numerous dialects are spoken within each provinceNumerous dialects are spoken within each province Creation of standard national languages are relatively recentCreation of standard national languages are relatively recent FranceFrance Standard form = FrancienStandard form = Francien From Ile-de-France regionFrom Ile-de-France region Became official in 16 th cent.Became official in 16 th cent. Dialect differenceDialect difference North- Langue d’oilNorth- Langue d’oil South- Langue d’ocSouth- Langue d’oc Often called OccitanOften called Occitan

29 Romance Branch SpainSpain Contained many dialects during Middle AgesContained many dialects during Middle Ages Castilian spread throughout the country as it unifiedCastilian spread throughout the country as it unified Spain reached approximate present day boundaries in 15 th centurySpain reached approximate present day boundaries in 15 th century Castilian became official languageCastilian became official language Now called SpanishNow called Spanish Regional dialects survived only in secluded rural areasRegional dialects survived only in secluded rural areas ExpansionExpansion Both Spain and Portuguese have achieved worldwide importance because of colonizationBoth Spain and Portuguese have achieved worldwide importance because of colonization 90% of speakers live outside two nations90% of speakers live outside two nations Spanish is official language of 18 Latin American nationsSpanish is official language of 18 Latin American nations Portuguese is spoken in BrazilPortuguese is spoken in Brazil DifferencesDifferences Two languages diffused thanks to exploration in 15 th century Treaty of Tordesillas 1493 Two languages differ from West Hemisphere and East Hemisphere Forces in both hemispheres “standardize” the languages

30 Distinguishing between Dialect and Languages Difficulties arise in determining whether two languages are distinct or whether they are merely two dialects of the same languageDifficulties arise in determining whether two languages are distinct or whether they are merely two dialects of the same language Romance languages spoken in some former colonies can be classified as separate languages because they differ substantially from the original introduced by European colonizers.Romance languages spoken in some former colonies can be classified as separate languages because they differ substantially from the original introduced by European colonizers. French CreoleFrench Creole Papiamento (Creolized Spanish)Papiamento (Creolized Spanish) Portuguese CreolePortuguese Creole A Creole or creolized language is defined as a language that results from the mixing of the colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.A Creole or creolized language is defined as a language that results from the mixing of the colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.

31 Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo- Iranian languages are all part of the same Indo-European language familyGermanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo- Iranian languages are all part of the same Indo-European language family Must be descended from a single common ancestral languageMust be descended from a single common ancestral language Called Proto-Indo-EuropeanCalled Proto-Indo-European Can’t be provenCan’t be proven Existed before writingExisted before writing B.C.E B.C.E. Internal EvidenceInternal Evidence Physical attributes of words themselves in various Indo-European languagesPhysical attributes of words themselves in various Indo-European languages Beech, oak, bear, deer, beeBeech, oak, bear, deer, bee Probably lived in a cold climateProbably lived in a cold climate Modern Indo-European languages share word for “snow”Modern Indo-European languages share word for “snow” No contact with oceansNo contact with oceans Most agree that Proto-Indo-European existedMost agree that Proto-Indo-European existedProto-Indo-European Disagree on when and where it originated and how it diffused Two theories Nomadic Warrior Thesis (Conquest) 1 st speakers were Kurgan people Homeland near steppes near present day Russia and Kazakhstan Earliest evidence 4300 B.C.E. Nomadic herders First to domesticate Migrated for grasslands Later developed weapons, conquered South Asia Sedentary Farmer Thesis (Agrarian) 1 st speakers lived 2000 yrs before Kurgan Homeland in East Anatolia Diffused towards Mediterranean With agricultural practices not military conquest

32 Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European Map of Indo-European MigrationsMap of Indo-European Migrations B.C.E B.C.E.


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