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Language Estimated in 6,909 languages in world

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Presentation on theme: "Language Estimated in 6,909 languages in world"— Presentation transcript:

1 Language Estimated in 6,909 languages in world
-only 11 languages spoken by more than 100 million people -153 languages spoken by at least 3 million -remaining languages spoken by fewer than 3 million people

2 Language Language: A system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning Many languages have a literary tradition A system of written communication Those that lack literary tradition leave no records to document distribution of language Many countries designate at least one official language One used by government for laws, signs, money and stamps

3 Language Definitions Proto-tongue Language divergence Language shift
Language is a culture trait learned from one generation to another Speculated that nearly 2.5 million years ago language developed in order to organize human activity All original speakers communicated in the proto-tongue or original language Once speakers migrated, language divergence occurred Language divergence When speakers of the same language scatter and develop variations of that original form of language Language shift When speakers come into contact with other languages, a blending of the two or more languages can occur. Language replacement Occurs when invaders replace the language of those places they conquer Can lead to language extinction When a language is no longer used Reverse Reconstruction Process begins with the most recent places of the languages existence and moves backward through time comparing words with geographic places and groups of people using the same or similar words

4 Language Definitions Dialect Language family Language branch
Regional variations within a standard language Differences in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary Language family Collection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistorical origin Most widely spoken is Indo- European Example: Indo-European Language branch Collection of languages that possesses a definite common origin but has split into individual languages Example: Romance Language group Collection of several individual languages that is part of a language branch, shares a common origin in the recent past, and has relatively similar grammar and vocabulary Example: Spanish, French

5 Where are English-language speakers distributed
Key Issue #1 Where are English-language speakers distributed

6 Origin of English English English Colonies
1st language for 328 million people Spoken fluently by half-billion people Official language in 57 countries Predominate language in 2 countries Australia United States 2 billion people (1/3rd) live in a country where English is the official language English Colonies Contemporary distribution of English speakers around the world exists because the people of England migrated with their languages when they established colonies in the past four centuries Diffusion From England to North America Jamestown, VA 1607 Plymouth, Mass 1620 English assured as dominant language after French-Indian war England conquered other colonies in late 17th, 18th and 19th centuries Ireland Southeast Asia Africa

7 Origin of English in England
British Isles inhabited for thousands of years but nothing is known of early languages 1st known- the Celts arrived Arrived 2000 B.C.E. Around 450 C.E. tribes invaded from mainland Europe invaded Celts pushed into Northern and Western parts of England, Scotland, and Wales German Invasion Invading Tribes Angles, Jutes, Saxons Shared a similar language Anglo-Saxons Modern English derived from At some time all Germans spoke same language Predates recorded history Other invasions contributed to language Vikings 9th century

8 Origin of English in England
Norman Invasion English is different from German today thanks to the Normans Normans invaded in 1066 C.E. Spoke French Language in England for 300 yrs Mainly only Royals spoke England lost control of Normandy in 1204 C.E. Conflict with French English dominate again Mix of English and French created new hybrid

9 Dialects of English Dialect: Migration
A regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation Reflects distinctive features of the environments in which groups live Distribution of dialects studied through study of particular words Isogloss: A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate Collected data directly from people Migration When speakers of a language migrate to other locations, various dialects of that language might develop Example: English speakers migration to North America English varies by regions within individual countries In a language with multiple dialects, one dialect may be recognized as the standard language Most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication Ex. British Received Pronunciation

10 Dialects in England English originated with three invading groups
Angles, Jute, Saxons All basis of distant regional regional dialects of Old English Southeast- Kentish Southwest- West Saxon North- Northumbrian Center- Mercian After French Invasion Five major dialects emerged Northern, East Midland, West Midland, Southwestern and Southeastern/ Kentish Standard language Dialect used by upper-class residents emerged as standard for writing and speech Diffusion occurred thanks to Printing press in 1476 Grammar books and dictionaries printed in “London” dialect Strong regional differences remain Three main dialect Northern Midland Southern

11 Differences Between British and American English
English language brought to North America with Colonists in 17th century Early Colonists spoke language spoken in England Later immigrants found English already implanted here Made significant contributions to American English Why is American English so different? Isolation U.S. and England evolved independently in 18th and 19th centuries Vocabulary Settlers encountered new experiences Physical features, animals, inventions Ex. Elevator = lift in England Spelling Diverged due to demand for independent identity Noah Webster Determined to develop a uniquely American dialect of English Wanted to establish a national language Ex. Honour= honor Pronunciation Began with arrival of colonists Changed more in England than U.S. Americans didn’t speak proper English

12 Differences

13 Dialects in the United States
Different dialects originated because of differences in dialects among original settlers Settlement in the East New England Established and inhabited by colonist from England Mainly from SE England Southeastern ½ came from SE England Diverse social-classes Middle Atlantic Most diverse Penn- Quakers (North England) Scots/ Irish Germans Swedes English dialects in U.S. Southeast and New England easily recognizable today


15 Dialects in the United States
Pronunciation differences New England Drop the r South Make words into two syllables Middle Atlantic Diffused with western settlers Diffused much like housing types Mobility of Americans has been a major reason for the relatively uniform language that exists throughout much of the West Current dialect differences in the East Major dialect differences continue to exist within the U.S. Primarily on the East Coast Ex. Soda vs. Pop vs. Coke

16 Why is English Related to Other Languages
Key Issue #2 Why is English Related to Other Languages

17 Language Hearths Traditional approaches in cultural geography have identified the source areas of the world’s languages and the paths of diffusion of those languages from their places of origins.

18 Indo- European Branches
Language family Collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded history Indo-European most common family Language branch Collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago Indo-European family is divided into eight branches Germanic Clustered in NW Europe and North America Indo-Iranian Clustered in South Asia Baltic languages Clustered in Eastern Europe Romance Clustered in SW Europe and Latin America Other branches Albanian Armenian Greek Celtic

19 Germanic Branch Language group West Germanic Further divided
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary West Germanic Language group in Germanic branch English is a part of this group English and German are structurally similar and have many words in common Further divided High Germanic and Low Germanic

20 West Germanic Branch High Germanic Low Germanic North Germanic
Found in high elevations in Germany Spoken in southern mountains Basis for modern standard German language Low Germanic Includes: English Dutch Flemish North Germanic Includes languages spoken in Scandinavia Swedish Norwegian Danish Icelandic All derived from Old Norse

21 Indo-Iranian Branch Part of the Indo-European family
Includes more than 100 million speakers Branches include more than 100 individual languages Branch is divided into: Eastern group (Indic) Iranian

22 Indo-Iranian Branch Indic (Eastern Branch) Most widely used in
India Pakistan Bangladesh One of main elements of cultural diversity among the 1 billion plus residents in India is language Official language of India is Hindi Proposed as official language Rejected, remains English Only official way to write is using script called Devanagari India recognizes 22 “Scheduled languages” 15 are Indo-European Iranian (Western Branch) Includes Persian (Farsi) Spoken in Iran Pashto Spoken in Afghanistan and western Pakistan Kurdish Spoken in Western Iran, Northern Iraq, and Eastern Turkey Written in Arabic alphabet Spoken in Iran Southwestern Asia

23 Baltic-Slavic Branch Slavic once a single language
Differences developed in 7th century A.D. when several groups migrated from Asia into Eastern Europe Divided into: East West South Baltic

24 Balto-Slavic East Slavic Most widely used of Slavic languages Russian
One of 6 languages of U.N. Importance increased after rise of Soviet Union to power S.U. forced people to speak After break-up other languages re-emerged Ukrainian and Belarusian

25 Balto-Slavic West Slavic South Slavic Includes
Polish (most widely spoken) Czech Slovak Former Czechoslovakia tried to balance Czech and Slovak languages Country contained 2X Czechs Switched languages at sporting events Effective until split in 1993 South Slavic Spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Montenegro Serbia All once spoke Serbo-Croatian All once part of Yugoslavia Split= tensions Bosnians and Croats take offense Bosnian Muslims introduced Arabic words into language Croats have replaced “Serbian words” May be very different in future All Slavic languages similar and can be understood….. For now.

26 Romance BRanch Evolved from Latin spoken by Romans 2,000 years ago
Four most widely used: Spanish Portuguese French Italian Languages spoken mainly within nation borders Mountains serves as barriers Strong intervening obstacles Also included Romanian Spoken in Romania and Moldova Separated from Western Europe by Slavic speakers Distribution of Romance Languages highlights difficulty in trying to establish #s of distinct languages in the world Several more Romance languages Ex. Catalan, Sardinian, Romansh Some have individual literary traditions

27 Romance Branch Origin Diffusion All derived from Latin
Spread of Roman Empire = spread of Latin Conquered languages often suppressed or extinguished Empire so large = Latin varied Provinces spoke “Vulgar Latin” Vulgar means “the masses” Introduced by soldiers Diffusion Following collapse of Roman Empire communication declined Some reverted to old language Led to new, distinct languages

28 Romance Branch Dialects Languages evolved over time
Numerous dialects are spoken within each province Creation of standard national languages are relatively recent France Standard form = Francien From Ile-de-France region Became official in 16th cent. Dialect difference North- Langue d’oil South- Langue d’oc Often called Occitan

29 Romance Branch Spain Differences
Contained many dialects during Middle Ages Castilian spread throughout the country as it unified Spain reached approximate present day boundaries in 15th century Castilian became official language Now called Spanish Regional dialects survived only in secluded rural areas Expansion Both Spain and Portuguese have achieved worldwide importance because of colonization 90% of speakers live outside two nations Spanish is official language of 18 Latin American nations Portuguese is spoken in Brazil Differences Two languages diffused thanks to exploration in 15th century Treaty of Tordesillas 1493 Two languages differ from West Hemisphere and East Hemisphere Forces in both hemispheres “standardize” the languages

30 Distinguishing between Dialect and Languages
Difficulties arise in determining whether two languages are distinct or whether they are merely two dialects of the same language Romance languages spoken in some former colonies can be classified as separate languages because they differ substantially from the original introduced by European colonizers. French Creole Papiamento (Creolized Spanish) Portuguese Creole A Creole or creolized language is defined as a language that results from the mixing of the colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.

31 Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European
Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo- Iranian languages are all part of the same Indo-European language family Must be descended from a single common ancestral language Called Proto-Indo-European Can’t be proven Existed before writing B.C.E. Internal Evidence Physical attributes of words themselves in various Indo-European languages Beech, oak, bear, deer, bee Probably lived in a cold climate Modern Indo-European languages share word for “snow” No contact with oceans Most agree that Proto-Indo-European existed Disagree on when and where it originated and how it diffused Two theories Nomadic Warrior Thesis (Conquest) 1st speakers were Kurgan people Homeland near steppes near present day Russia and Kazakhstan Earliest evidence 4300 B.C.E. Nomadic herders First to domesticate Migrated for grasslands Later developed weapons, conquered South Asia Sedentary Farmer Thesis (Agrarian) 1st speakers lived 2000 yrs before Kurgan Homeland in East Anatolia Diffused towards Mediterranean With agricultural practices not military conquest

32 Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European
Map of Indo-European Migrations B.C.E.

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