3 Why is English related to Other Languages? English = Indo-European language familyA language family- a collection of langs related thru a common ancestor that existed long before recorded history.Indo-European is the language family with the most speakers (~3 bil).
5 Indo-European Branches W/in lang families are language branchesA language branch- a collection of langs related thru a common ancestor that existed thousands of years ago.differences are not as extensive/old as with lang. familiesarchaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same familyIndo-European is divided into 8 branches: Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Greek, Albanian, Celtic, and Armenian
6 Diagram the BranchesOn the paper provided, create a diagram/hierarchy of Indo-European family treeBe sure to include all the languages on the handout provided.Include information about # of speakers and where it will be spoken.On the back, you may want to note which are official languagesOutline the origin & diffusion section on the back/ own paper
8 Germanic BranchEnglish = Germanic Language Branch West Germanic GroupA language group is a collection of langs w/in a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past, & display relatively few differences in grammar and vocab
9 West Germanic GroupIncludes the languages of German & English, Afrikaans, and DutchHigh Sub-Group:German is spoken mainly in Germany, Austria, and SwitzerlandLow Sub-Group:English is spoken on every continent (key places: Great Britain, United States, Canada, India, Japan, and Australia)Dutch in the Netherlands, Flemish in BelgiumAfrikaans in South Africa & Namibia (like Dutch)
10 North Germanic Group Sometimes called Nordic North Germanic languages of Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and DanishDerived from Old NorseEnglish wordIcelandic wordSpoken comparisonappleepli listen (help·info)bookbókhigh/hairhárhousehúsmothermóðirnightnóttstonesteinnthatþaðwordorð
12 Romance BranchThe Romance Branch evolved from the Latin lang. spoken by Romans 2,000 years agoThe four most common Romance languages are Spanish, Portuguese, French, and ItalianFrench and Spanish are two of the six official UN languages
13 Romance Branch Romanian in Romania and Moldova Only one spatially separatedOthers include Romansh (one of Switzerland’s 4 official languages), and Catalan (spoken in Spain, and the official language of Andorra)4 more in EuropeHaiti: French Creole is ex. of Rom. language spoken outside Eur.
14 Creolecreolized language = mix of a colonial language and an indigenous langForms when a colonized grp adopts the lang of the dominant grp, but makes some changes (usually involving vocab from native lang or grammar changes)
16 History of the Romance Languages Latin was spread by the soldiers of the Roman EmpireWhen they conquered a group of people, they taught them LatinThe ppl spoke a different form of Latin called Vulgar Latin, or Latin of the People.Ex: The Latin word for horse is equus, but the Vulgar Latin word for horse was caballus. Italian: cavallor, Spanish: caballo, Portuguese: cavalo, and French: cheval
17 Spanish and Portuguese Both of these languages are important around the world due to Spanish and Portuguese imperialismSpanish is the official language in 18 Latin American countriesLingua franca of regionPortuguese is the official language of Brazil
19 Balto-Slavic Branch Roots are more Asian Due to isolation of different groups when they arrived in Eastern Europe, different languages emergedEast*, West, South Slavic and Baltic GROUPLanguages include: Ukrainian, Russian, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian, and the Baltic langs
20 Balto-Slavic BranchRussian is most widely spoken lang, and is spoken by 80% of the RussiansRussian is one of the 6 official languages of the UNRussification post-WWIIUkrainian and Belarusian next in # for East Slavic.The Eastern Baltic languages include Latvian and Lithuanian.
21 Balto-Slavic BranchMain West Slavic languages are Polish (Poland), Czech and Slovak (former Czechoslovakia)Speakers of Czech and Slovak can understand each otherSouth Slavic- Slovene in Slovenia, Macedonian in Macedonia, and Serbo-Croatian is spoken by rest of Yugo.w/ conflicts, similarities are NOT being preservedMontenegrans & Serbs use Cyrillic alphabet
23 Indo-Iranian Branch The Indo-Iranian branch has the most speakers. It has over 100 langs with over 1 billion native speakersThe branch includes the languages of Persian (Farsi), Bengali, Hindi, Urdu, and Punjabi
24 The Indic (eastern) Group 1/3 of Indians use HindiSpoken many different ways, but there is 1 common written form of the language called DevanagariIndia’s constitution recognizes 18 official languages4 diff lang. families present
25 The Indic GroupPakistan’s principal language is Urdu, and the written form is Arabic alphabetBangladesh’s main language is BengaliEnglish not official. Only 1% speak itBut often common language
26 The Iranian (western) Group Indo-Iranian languages are spoken in Iran and neighboring countriesPersian, or Farsi, is main lang in Iran.Other languages include Kurdish and Pashto (Pathan/Pashtun)All of these are written w/ Arabic alphabet.
28 Other LanguagesGreek, Albanian, Celtic, and Armenian are in the Indo-European family, but stand on their ownGreek: in Greece, 12 million native speakers.Armenian: in Armenia, 6 million native speakers.Albanian: in Albania (some Serbia, Italy), 7.3 million native speakersCeltic: in UK (some France), 1.4 million