Presentation on theme: "May 7, 2015S. Mathews1 Human Geography By James Rubenstein Chapter 5 Key Issue 1 Where Are English-Language Speakers Distributed?"— Presentation transcript:
May 7, 2015S. Mathews1 Human Geography By James Rubenstein Chapter 5 Key Issue 1 Where Are English-Language Speakers Distributed?
May 7, 2015S. Mathews2 Estimates of Distinct Languages 2000 to 4000 languages in the world. About 100 languages are spoken by at least 5 million people. Another 70 languages are spoken by 2 to 5 million people.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews3 Language A system of communication through speech.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews4 Literary Tradition A system of written communication.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews5 Official Language A language designated by a country for business and government.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews6 A country with more than one official language may require all public documents to be in all languages.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews7 Study of Geographic Elements Migration spreads language. Cultural Values, such as religion and ethnicity, or communicated through language. Global distribution results from - interaction - isolation
May 7, 2015S. Mathews8 A language originates at a particular place and diffuses to other locations through the migration of its speakers.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews9 Origin and Diffusion of English English is spoken fluently by 1/2 billion people, more than any language except for Mandarin. Whereas nearly all Mandarin speakers are clustered in one country – China – English speakers are distributed around the world.
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May 7, 2015S. Mathews11 English Colonies The contemporary distribution of English speakers around the world exists because the people of England migrated with their language when they established colonies during the past four centuries.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews12 The Diffusion of English Beginning in the 17 th century, from England to America. Next to Ireland. To South Asia in the mid 18 th century. To South Pacific in the late 18 th century. To southern Africa in the late 19 th century.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews13 Invasion and Migration Routes
May 7, 2015S. Mathews14 Origin of English in England Inhabited for thousands of years by tribes whose languages are unknown. In 2000 B.C., the Celts arrived from Europe. Around A.D. 450, Germanic tribes arrived and pushed the Celts to remote areas of parts of the island. In 1066, French speaking Normans arrived from France.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews15 German Invasion The Angles, Jutes, and Saxons were among the German tribes that invaded England. In Old English, Angles is spelled “Engles” and is the source of the name England. The Angles came from a corner or “angle” of Germany.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews16 Viking Invasion Failed in their attempt to conquer the island. Many remained in the country. The language was enriched with many new words of Viking origin.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews17 Norman Invasion England was conquered by the Normans in 1066. From the French province of Normandy The invaders made French the language of the ruling court. The majority of the people still spoke English.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews18 Loss of Normandy England lost control of Normandy in 1204. In 1362, the Parliament enacted the Statue of Pleading which made English the official language of the court. During the 300 years of Norman influence, French and German mingled to form new language.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews19 Dialects of English
May 7, 2015S. Mathews20 Dialect A regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews21 Standard Dialect A dialect that is well established and widely recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews22 British Received Pronunciation (BRP) A dialect of England associated with upper- class London, which is recognized as the “standard form” of British speech.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews23 Dialects in England The 3 original dialects of Old English were associated with the 3 original invading groups. By 1362, 5 regional dialects had emerged. The BRP was encouraged by the introduction of the printing press to England in 1476.
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May 7, 2015S. Mathews25 Language expert Professor Henry Higgins in “My Fair Lady” teaching “Cockney” speaking Eliza Doolittle proper English.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews26 Regional Dialects Rules for spelling and grammar were established in the eighteenth century. Several dozen dialects are grouped into 3 main ones: - Northern - Midland - Southern
May 7, 2015S. Mathews27 Differences between British and American English The earliest colonists were most responsible for the dominant language patterns that exist today in the English-speaking part of the Western Hemisphere.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews28 English in the UK and US evolved independently during the 18 th and 19 th centuries.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews29 Differences in Vocabulary Settlers in America borrowed names from Native Americans for many new objects and experiences encountered. New inventions acquired different names on either side of the Atlantic.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews30 Differences Spelling Spelling diverged because of a strong national feeling of need in U.S. for an independent identity.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews31 Examples of differences American English ElevatorLift FlashlightTorch Auto HoodBonnet Auto trunkBoot
May 7, 2015S. Mathews32 Noah Webster Created the first comprehensive American dictionary and grammar books. Argued that spelling and grammar reforms would help; - establish a national language - reduce cultural dependence on England - inspire national pride
May 7, 2015S. Mathews33 Differences in Pronunciation Between the U.S. and British speakers are immediately recognizable. Has changed more in England than in the U.S. “Proper” English today is not the same as “Proper” English during the colonial period.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews34 Dialects in the United States Major differences in U.S. dialects originated because of differences in dialects among the original settlers.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews35 Settlement in the East Original American settlements - New England - Middle Atlantic - Southeastern
May 7, 2015S. Mathews36 Original Settlements
May 7, 2015S. Mathews37 New England Colonists Two-thirds were Puritans from East Anglia in southeastern England.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews38 Southeastern Colonists About half came from southeast England and represented a diversity of social-class backgrounds.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews39 Middle Atlantic Colonists More diverse – most came from the north of England, or from other countries.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews40 Isogloss Words that are not used nationally, but have regional boundaries.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews41 Current Dialect Differences in the East Major differences occur primarily on the East Coast. Eastern U.S. is separated into 3 major dialect regions due to two important isoglosses. - Northern - Midland - Southern
May 7, 2015S. Mathews42 Regional Isoglosses Some words are commonly used in one of the three major dialect areas, but rarely in two. These words relate to - rural life - food - objects from daily life
May 7, 2015S. Mathews43 Regional Isoglosses Many words that were once regionally distinctive, now are national in distribution. Mass media (especially radio and television) influence the adoption of the same words throughout the country.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews44 Regional pronunciation differences are more familiar to us than word differences, although it is harder to draw precise isoglosses for them.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews45 New England Accent Well-known for dropping the “r” sound maintained especially close ties to the important ports of southern England. New Englanders received more exposure to the changes in pronunciation that occurred in Britain during the 18 th century.
May 7, 2015S. Mathews46 The mobility of Americans has been a major reason for the relatively uniform language that exists throughout much of the West.