3 Germanic Branch West Germanic group- subgroups named for what? High-GermanLow- English, Dutch, FlemishNorth Germanic groupSwedish, Danish, Norwegian, IcelandicAll 4 derive from Old NorseBecame 4 different languages- why?
4 Indo-Iranian Branch Indic (Eastern) group India + neighbors Major language of this group- HindiWhy is Hindi considered one singular language, even though there are many ways to speak it?Hindi not the official language of India- why?Repercussions of this?
5 Iranian (Western) group Iran + neighborsLanguages include Persian and KurdishWhat alphabet are these languages written in?
7 Balto-Slavic BranchSlavic was once a single language- why did differences develop?East Slavic and Baltic groupsRussian is by far the most primarily spoken of this group- why?Other languages in this group are Ukrainian and BelarusianWest and South Slavic groupsPolish, Czech, and Slovak are most widely spoken in this groupCzechoslovakia language difficulties?Serbo-Croatian has become what?Bosnian, Croatian, SerbianWhat is the main difference between the Bosnian/Croatian version and the Montenegran/Serbian version of Serbo-Croatian?What are some other differences?
8 Romance Branch Romance branch evolved from which language? Four languages correspond to the boundaries of which four countries?Four languages:Four countries:
10 Diffusion of English- Case Study Celts- British Isles, 2000 BCInvasion- Germanic tribes, 450 ADAnglo-SaxonsNormans ADFrench onlyMost people kept speaking English- why?Combination words = EnglishAmerica- 1607England defeated France in battle for colonization in 1700sColonies- 1600s-1899Ireland, South Asia, South Pacific, southern Africa, Philippines
11 Diffusion of Romance Languages- Case Study Latin- “Roman’s language”Roman Empire- spread Latin through __ diffusion?Latin in the captured provinces- “Vulgar Latin”, which was the people’s LatinAfter the Roman Empire collapsed, these different regions’ versions of Latin changed because of __?
12 Diffusion of Proto-Indo-European: Theory 1 Proto-Indo-European: the original language that the Indo-European *family* evolved from (the roots of our tree)Theory 1: The Nomadic Warrior HypothesisMarija Gimbutas is the author of this hypothesisFirst PIE speakers were the Kurgan peopleLived between Russia and KazakhstanCan be traced back to 4300 BCConquered much of Europe and South Asia, spread PIE as they went
13 Diffusion of Proto-Indo-European: Theory 2 Theory 2: The Sedentary Farmer HypothesisSupporters of this theory include Colin Renfrew and Russell D. GrayFirst PIE speakers lived in Turkey about 2000 years or more before the KurgansThey migrated west and northwestThis all occurred through peaceful migration- because the speakers were agricultural, their culture and language triumphedWhat does agriculture have to do with it?
14 Understanding CheckDescribe the diffusion of either English, Romance languages, or one of the theories of the Proto-Indo-European languageOne paragraphMay use notes
15 Four Indo-European Branches Germanic (1 group)Indo-IranianIndic/Eastern (1 group)Iranian/Western (1 group)Balto-SlavicEast Slavic and Baltic (1 group)West and South Slavic (1 group)Romance (1 group)Diffusion of English (1 group)Diffusion of Romance (1 group)Diffusion of Indo-European #1 (1 group)Diffusion of Indo-European #2 (1 group)